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The Election of ‘32 -FDR and the 1st New Deal. Relief, Recovery and Reform. Election Of 1932. FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R). Essential Questions:. What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’? Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?. FDR Facts. Born in 1882

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election of 1932
Election Of 1932
  • FDR (D) vs. Hoover (R)
essential questions
Essential Questions:
  • What did FDR mean when he offered a “New Deal’?
  • Why was the election of 1932 a turning point in American politics?
fdr facts
FDR Facts
  • Born in 1882
  • Went to Harvard
  • Lawyer
  • NY State Senate
  • Assistant Sec. of the Navy during WWI
fdr facts ii
FDR Facts II
  • Married Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Ran for VP in 1920
  • Contracted polio in 1921
  • Governor of NY 1929-1932
  • Willing to experiment with government roles
eleanor roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
  • Niece of TR
  • Married FDR in 1905, 6 children
  • Social Worker
  • Fought for public housing, gov. reform, birth control, and better conditions for women
election of 19321
Election of 1932

*Hoover

-Minimal Gov. Action

-Strict view of Gov.

-Less Gov. the better

election of 19322
Election of 1932
  • FDR

-Willing to experiment with the role of Gov.

-Supported broadening the role of Gov.

slide15
FDR
  • “Can do” attitude
  • Confident and Friendly
  • Compassionate
  • Inaugural Address 1933
  • “ …the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”
advisors to fdr
Advisors to FDR
  • “The Brain Trust”
    • Raymond Moley (Columbia)
    • Rexford Tugwell (Columbia)
    • Felix Frankfurter (Harvard)
fdr s cabinet
FDR’s Cabinet
  • Sec. of the Interior – Harold L. Ickes
  • Sec. of Agriculture – Henry A. Wallace
  • Sec. of the Treasury – Henry Morgenthau
  • Sec. of Labor- F. Perkins
essential questions1
Essential Questions:
  • What initial steps did FDR take to reform banking and finance?
  • What were some New Deal Programs?
  • Who were the critics of FDR’s New Deal?
the hundred days
The Hundred Days
  • 3/9/33 to 6/16/33
  • Congress passed more than 15 pieces of legislation
  • Significantly expanded the role of the Federal Gov. in the economy.
banking reform
Banking Reform
  • March 5th all banks closed by FDR
  • Emergency Banking Act – Healthy banks to reopen, management of failed banks.
  • Increased Gov. regulatory power over money and banking
banking reform part ii
Banking Reform Part II
  • First “Fireside Chat” March 1933
  • Glass-Steagall Act 1933- Established the FDIC
  • Federal Securities Act 1933-

Established the SEC to regulate the stock market

prohibition repealed
Prohibition Repealed
  • FDR pushed Congress to allow the sale and manufacture of beer and wine.
  • Effort to raise gov. revenues through taxes
  • 21st Amend. (End of 1933)
rural assistance
Rural Assistance
  • The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- Gov. paid farmers to limit production.
  • $200 million to plow under 10 million acres.
  • 6 million pigs slaughtered.
  • $ for farmers and prices raised farm prices
work projects
Work Projects

CCC – Civilian Conservation Corp – “Tree Army”

Employed 3 million men

Paid $25 - $30 a month

Men lived in work camps

Planted 200 million trees, 800 state parks, and 46,000 bridges

more work projects
More Work Projects

* Provided money to states to create jobs in construction of schools and community buildings.

Created the (PWA)

Part of (FERA)

work projects iii
Work Projects III
  • Civilian Works Administration (CWA) established in Nov. 1933
  • 4 million jobs
  • Built 40,000 schools
  • 500,000 miles of road
slide34
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  • 1933 – Federal Agency to construct dams and power plants along the TN river.

*Electricity, Flood Control, Recreation

recovery in business
Recovery in Business
  • NIRA wanted to promote industrial growth
  • NIRA established codes of fair practice for employers, employees, and consumers.
  • Nat. Recovery Adm. (NRA)
national recovery administration nira
National Recovery Administration (NIRA)
  • Set Prices and established standards
  • Codes limited production
  • Workers could unionize and bargain collectively
nira nra unconstitutional
NIRA/NRA Unconstitutional!!
  • In 1935 the Supreme Court ruled the NIRA Unconstitutional
  • They claimed it gave the Pres. too much power
  • Fed. Gov. was involved in state commerce
recovery in housing
Recovery In Housing
  • Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC)- Provided gov. loans to those facing forclosure.
  • National Housing Act 1934 – created the Federal Housing Administration to give loans for mortgages and repairs.
providing relief
Providing Relief
  • Federal Emergency Relief Adm. (FERA) was funded with $500 million for direct relief.
  • Half given to the states for food and clothing
providing relief ii fera
Providing Relief II- FERA
  • Helped unemployed, aging, and the ill.
  • $ was given to states to support work relief programs. (CWA/PWA)
deficit spending
Deficit Spending
  • More $ was spent on the New Deal than the gov. received in revenue
  • National Debt increased, no balanced budgets
  • FDR – “necessary evil” during crisis
john maynard keynes
John Maynard Keynes
  • British economist
  • Gov. should spend to provide $ for consumers
  • Deficit Spending is necessary to stimulate the economy.
  • “Priming the Pump”
liberal critics
Liberal Critics
  • Criticism of The New Deal from the political left
  • Socialist and Communist
  • The New Deal did not go far enough to help the poor and reform the econ. system
conservative critics
Conservative Critics
  • Too much time on direct relief
  • FDR socialized the economy…big gov.
  • AAA + NIRA gave gov. too much control
  • interfered with free-market
unconstitutional
Unconstitutional!!
  • 1935 NIRA Unconstitutional!!!
  • Gave FDR lawmaking power
  • 1936 AAA Unconstitutional
  • Agriculture is a local matter to be regulated by the states
three critics
Three Critics
  • Father Charles Coughlin
  • Dr. Francis Townsend
  • Huey Long
two demagogues
Two Demagogues
  • Demagogues - Leaders who manipulate people with half- truths, deceptive promises, and scare tactics.
father charles coughlin
Father Charles Coughlin
  • Roman Catholic Priest
  • Radio Show that combined political, economic, and religious ideas
  • Audience 40-45 million
  • Initial Supporter of FDR
father charles coughlin ii
Father Charles Coughlin II
  • Wanted a guaranteed annual income and nationalization of banks
  • Anti- Semitic
dr francis townsend
Dr. Francis Townsend
  • Physician and Health Officer,Long Beach. CA
  • FDR did not help the poor and elderly
  • Monthly pension benefits to the aged - $200 over 60
huey long king fish
Huey Long “King Fish”
  • Senator from Louisiana
  • Early supporter of the New Deal
  • Presidential Ambitions
  • “Every Man a King!”
  • Share our Wealth Plan - SOW 27,000 clubs, 7.5 million
  • Assassinated in 1935
fdr looks ahead
FDR Looks Ahead
  • He realized more needed to be done to help the people and solve the economic problems
  • The Second New Deal or Second Hundred Days
the second new deal
The Second New Deal
  • What was the purpose of the Second New Deal?
  • What were the New Deal programs for farmers?
  • What Second New Deal Programs helped young people and artistic professionals?
  • What economic and labor reforms that were carried out under the Second New Deal?
second new deal
Second New Deal
  • More Help for Farmers
  • First AAA was ruled Unconstitutional due to a processing tax
  • Second AAA again paid farmers subsidies not to grow surplus crops
farm security admin
Farm Security Admin.
  • FSA loaned more than $1 billion to small farmers to purchase land.
  • Camps for migrant farmers
  • Help for share-croppers
  • Hired Photographers to capture rural life
  • Ex. Dorothea Lange
fdr extends relief
FDR extends Relief
  • Works Progress Adm. (WPA) 1935-1943
  • Spend $11 billion to give jobs to 8 million workers.
  • Constructed 651,000 miles of streets
  • Constructed more than 125,000 public buildings
  • Women 300 mil garments
wpa activities
WPA Activities
  • Wrote Guides to cities
  • Collected Historical Slave Narratives
  • Painted Murals on Walls
  • Federal Theater Project FTP
  • National Youth Administration ( NYA)16-25
  • Education, Jobs, & Advice
improving labor
Improving Labor
  • 1935 Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional
  • Workers had been granted the right to organize in unions and bargain collectively
  • Workers wanted new laws
the wagner act
The Wagner Act
  • Legalized collective bargaining and closed shops
  • No threats, blacklisting, or spying on unions

National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

  • NLRB – Enforces provisions
fair labor standards act
Fair Labor Standards Act
  • Max. Hrs. per week 44
  • Min. wage at $.25 per hour
  • Set rules for workers under 16
  • Banned hazardous work for those under 18.
social security act of 1935
Social Security Act of 1935
  • Old Age pensions and survivors benefits 65 and older.
  • Unemployment Insurance – Tax on employers paid $15-$18 per week
  • Aid for dependent children who were disabled
unions triumph
Unions Triumph
  • Membership rose from 3 mil in 1933 to 10.5 million by 1941
  • By 1945, 36% of workers were Unionized.
  • John L. Lewis the United Mine Workers Pres. Joined with other Union Rep of the AFL to create the Committee of Industrial Org. (CIO)
unions triumph ii
Unions Triumph II
  • The CIO sent reps into steel mills, coal mines, auto plants, and southern mills to recruit workers
  • (The AFL suspended the CIO)
  • Nov. 1938 both formed a coalition and became the Congress of Industrial Org. (CIO) with Lewis as Pres.
era of strikes
Era of Strikes
  • Companies didn’t accept Union’s demands
  • Workers used Sit-down Strikes
  • Workers refused to leave the building
  • 1936 Rubber Plant in Akron
  • 1936 General Motors Flint, Mich. (UAW) 2 mo. GM gave in
unsuccessful strikes
Unsuccessful Strikes
  • 1937 Ford Motor Co. , Detroit
  • UAW officials beaten by Henry’s Ford’s men while trying to recruit by passing out pamphlets
  • Other strikes became violent
  • 1939 the Supreme Court outlawed sit-down strikes. (too potent and obstructed negotiation)
new deal coalition
New Deal Coalition
  • FDR vs. Alfred Landon (R) Election of ‘36
  • FDR won in a landslide
  • Unions
  • Industrial Workers Skilled/Unskilled
  • Recent Immigrants
  • Roman Catholics
  • Jews
  • Northern African- Americans
  • Farmers
regulating utilities
Regulating Utilities
  • Rural Electrification Adm. (REA)
  • Offered loans to Cooperatives and Farms to build plants and power lines to rural areas
  • Public Utility Holding Act -No Holding Co. Ownership of utilities
depression in rural areas
Depression in Rural Areas
  • Falling Crop prices
  • Rising debt
  • 400,000 farm foreclosures
  • Had to tenant farm
the dust bowl
The Dust Bowl
  • Overproduction of land
  • Unsuitable for farming
  • Droughts
  • Windstorms
  • KS,CO,TX,NM,OK
farmer exodus
Farmer Exodus
  • Farmers and Families pack –up
  • Head West on Route 66
  • California
  • “Okies”
  • The Grapes of Wrath
mexican americans and the new deal
Mexican- Americans and the New Deal
  • Worked in the Southwest as farm workers since the 1920s’
  • Discriminated against by the CCC and WPA because they had no permanent address
  • Farm workers tried to unionize
boulder dam project i
BoulderDam Project I
  • Approved in 1928
  • Construction began in 1930 and ended in 1936.
  • Boulder City , NV Housed the workers.
  • Hoover financed the construction by using future profits of electricity
boulder dam project
Boulder Dam Project
  • $700 million dollar public works project
  • 726ft. High and 1,244 ft. long
  • Provided electricity and flood control. (CO river basin)
  • Provided thousands of jobs
  • Water source for LA and LV
native americans in the 1930 s
Native- Americans in the 1930’s
  • In 1933, FDR appointed John Collier as commissioner of Indian affairs
  • Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
    • Economic- Native American land was held by the entire tribe
    • Cultural- Boarding school were reduced and children could attend school on the reservation
    • Political- Tribes could elect tribal councils to govern the reservations
depression era culture essential questions
Depression Era Culture Essential Questions:
  • 1.) What entertainment did radio and movies provide?
  • 2.) Who were some writers and artists of the New Deal era?
golden age of movies and radio
Golden Age of Movies and Radio
  • 65% of people attended movies once a wk.
  • 15,000 movie theaters
  • Radios- 13 million in 1930 to 28 million by 1940
movie stars of the 30 s
Movie Stars of the 30’s
  • Clark Gable
  • Marlene Dietrich
  • James Cagney
  • Marx Brothers
popular flicks of the 30 s
Popular Flicks of the 30’s
  • Gone with the Wind – 1939
  • Flying Down to Rio – 1933
  • The Wizard of Oz – 1939
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – 1937
  • Little Caesar – 1930
  • The Public Enemy - 1931
popular comedies
Popular Comedies
  • Monkey Business – 1931
  • Duck Soup - 1931
  • Modern Times - 1936
popular movie comedians
Popular Movie Comedians
  • Laurel and Hardy
  • Abbott and Castello
  • The Three Stooges
positive new deal movies good wins over evil
Positive New Deal MoviesGood wins over Evil
  • Mr. Smith Goes to Washington - 1939
  • Mr. Deeds Goes to Town - 1936
  • Both Directed by Frank Capra
radio entertains
Radio Entertains
  • Orson Wells
  • Bob Hope
  • Jack Benny
  • George Burns
  • Gracie Allen
tragedy on radio
Tragedy on Radio
  • Crash of the Hindenburg
  • A German Zeppelin
  • NJ, May 6th, 1937
  • “Oh the Humanity!!!”
the arts in depression america
The Arts in Depression America
  • Federal Art Project was part of the WPA
  • Artists were paid to promote positive images of American life (100,000 paintings)
  • Murals, posters, and art education flourished
  • Mexican Muralist – Diego Rivera inspired these artists
american painters
American Painters
  • Edward Hopper
  • Thomas Hart Benton
  • Grant Wood
depression singers
Depression Singers
  • Woody Guthrie
  • Used music to capture the hardship of America
  • Fled the Dust Bowl
  • Federal Music Project – Preserved Folk music
federal writers project
Federal Writers Project
  • Paid more than 6,000 writers
  • Richard Wright – Native Son ( 1940)
  • Zora Neale Hurston – Their Eyes Are Watching God ( 1937)
  • Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath ( 1939)
federal theater project
Federal Theater Project
  • Playwrights/Actors and Directors
  • Launched careers of:
  • Burt Lancaster
  • Arthur Miller
  • John Houseman
  • Orsen wells
the new deal the limits of reform
The New Deal –The Limits of Reform
  • What was the impact of the New Deal on Women?
  • What was FDR’s attitude toward African Americans?
  • What groups formed the New Deal Coalition?
  • Who were the supporters of FDR’s New Deal?
fdr court packing scheme
FDR Court Packing Scheme
  • 1937 “Court Packing Bill”
  • 6 additional Justices
  • FDR faced a storm of protests
  • Due to retirement FDR eventually got his way.
new deal for women
New Deal for Women
  • Frances Perkins became Sec. of Labor
  • Two female diplomats
  • Two female judges
  • New Deal had mixed results, women were thought to give up a job if a man was without one
  • Women in the workplace grew from 11.7% in 1930 to 15.6% by 1940
breaking ground
Breaking Ground
  • FDR hired more than 100 African Americans for key New Deal posts.
  • Mary McLeod Bethune – Advisor to FDR on African American concerns.
  • Educator, Women’s Org., and government
fdr fails to support civil rights
FDR Fails to Support Civil Rights
  • FDR never committed to Civil Rights for blacks
  • He was afraid of losing Southern white democrats’ support for New Deal programs
  • Discrimination existed in the NRA, CCC, and the TVA
  • Eleanor Roosevelt was helpful, and African Americans supported FDR
the roosevelt recession
The Roosevelt Recession
  • The economy improved significantly by 1937 (Unemployment 14%)
  • FDR cut spending for the WPA and Farm Programs
  • Stock Market collapsed in 1937
  • Emergency Spending Bill in 1938
  • Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938
  • The Housing Act of 1937
essential questions2
Essential Questions:
  • What are the opinions about the effectiveness of the New Deal?
  • What are the lasting legacies of the New Deal?
supporters and critics
Supporters and Critics
  • Conservatives felt the New Deal made the Federal Government too large and stifled free enterprise
  • Liberals felt he did not do enough to eliminate social and economic inequalities.
  • WWII ended the Depression, not the New Deal
legacies of the new deal
Legacies of the New Deal
  • Bridges,Dams,TunnelsPublic Buildings, and Hospitals
  • A more active Federal Gov., the welfare state, help for citizens
legacies of the new deal ii
Legacies of the New Deal II
  • Tenn. Valley Authority
  • Federal Deposit Corp.
  • Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC)
  • Crop Allotment
  • Social Security
  • Gains for Unions ( NLRB)
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