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TRAINRO/2-PPT/4. Unmanned Aircraft Systems / Remotely-piloted Aircraft. Leslie Cary Technical Officer, ATM Second Training Course of Regional Officers (AGA, AIM, CNS and MET Regional Officers) (Montreal, 25 October — 5 November 2010). Overview. Background on UASSG ICAO function re UAS

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TRAINRO/2-PPT/4

Unmanned Aircraft Systems /Remotely-piloted Aircraft

Leslie Cary

Technical Officer, ATM

Second Training Course of Regional Officers

(AGA, AIM, CNS and MET Regional Officers)

(Montreal, 25 October — 5 November 2010)


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Overview

  • Background on UASSG

  • ICAO function re UAS

  • Evolving concepts

  • UAS Circular


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UASSG

  • Established by the ANC in November 2007

  • Membership: Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Sweden, U.K., U.S., CANSO, EASA, EUROCAE, EUROCONTROL, IAOPA, ICCAIA, IFALPA, IFATCA, UVS Intl.


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UASSG

  • Focal point for all UAS issues within ICAO

  • TORs: …to assist the Secretariat in coordinating the development of ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), Procedures and guidance material for civil unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), to support a safe, secure and efficient integration of UAS into non-segregated airspace and aerodromes.


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Convention on International Civil Aviation

Article 8

Pilotless aircraft

No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be flown without a pilot over the territory of a contracting State without special authorization by that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each contracting State undertakes to insure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil aircraft shall be so controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft.

on board


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ICAO Focus

  • International operations

    • assure safety, security, efficiency

    • harmonize across all States, airspaces, aerodromes

  • Controlled airspace/aerodromes

  • Civil aviation

    • State aircraft (military, customs, police) exempt


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Certification option 1

  • RPA + Remote Pilot Station + C2 = RPAS

    • RPAS is subset of UAS

    • RPA needs registration and Certificate of Airworthiness

    • Certificate of Airworthiness considers entire system

    • State of Design of RPA identifies on Type Certificate Data Sheet specific remote pilot station(s) which can be utilized

    • Continuing airworthiness of RPA per norm

    • State oversight of remote pilot station essential

    • UAS Operator Certificate details specificities

    • QOS/RCP for C2/C3


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Certification option 2

  • RPA and remote pilot station handled separately

    • RPA needs registration and Certificate of Airworthiness

    • Remote pilot station needs comparable documentation

    • State of Design of RPA identifies on Type Certificate Data Sheet remote pilot station type(s) which can be utilized

    • Continuing airworthiness of RPA per norm

    • State oversight of remote pilot station essential

    • State of RPA operator and State of remote pilot station operator could be different

    • UAS Operator Certificate details specificities

    • Remote Pilot Station Operator Certificate details specificities

    • QOS/RCP for C2/C3


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Technical Requirements

  • Distributed between RPA and remote pilot station:

    • Instruments

    • Detect and avoid

    • Transponders (pressure-altitude reporting)

    • Flight recorders

    • Emergency locator transmitter


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Technical Requirements

  • Handover between remote pilot stations

    • Technical protocols for automatic transfer of C2 data link authority

    • Crew procedures to verify link and ensure ‘relief briefing’

      (analogous to CPDLC handover between ATC facilities)

  • Detect and avoid:

    • All aircraft

    • Hazards: obstacles, terrain, parachutists, birds, etc


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Evolving concepts

  • Remote pilot

    • Licensing by State of the RPA or remote pilot station - ?

    • License specifies type of RPA(s) and type of remote pilot station

    • Requires many new arrangements

    • Remote pilots not “airmen” or “flight crew”; outside purview of Article 32


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Assembly Resolution A36-13, Appendix G

The Assembly resolves that:

2. pending the coming into force of international Standards respecting particular categories, classes or types of aircraft or classes of airmen, certificates and licences issued or rendered valid, under national regulations, by the Contracting State in which the aircraft is registered shall be recognized by other Contracting States for the purpose of flight over their territories, including landings and take-offs.


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Terminology

Unmanned aircraft system - UAS (umbrella term)

Remotely-piloted aircraft - RPA

Remote pilot station

Remotely-piloted aircraft system - RPAS (RPA+[rps]+C2)

Remote pilot

Remote crew

RPA observer

UAS operator certificate - UOC (AOC comp.)

Detect and avoid

Handover


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ICAO Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Circular (Cir 328)

  • Overview of UAS wrt ICAO framework

  • Terminology

  • Legal considerations (re Articles of the Convention)

  • Operations (rules of the air, ATM, SAR, AVSEC, aerodromes, environment)

  • Equipment (aircraft, remote pilot station, ANS infrastructure)

  • Personnel (remote pilot, remote crew, ATCO)


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Final thoughts

  • ICAO is identifying the issues to be addressed

  • Keeping within the existing regulatory framework

  • Looking for novel solutions where necessary

  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Circular – Cir 328

  • Will promulgate guidance material starting in 2012/2013

  • SARPs and PANS when material is mature