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Sandhi 1. Rules of external sandhi for anusvàra:. 1. Word-final m  ü before a word-initial consonant: devam + paśyati `s/he sees the god' devaü paśyati devam + dadarśa `s/he saw the god' devaü dadarśa pårvam + sattvam `the former existence' pårvaü sattvam.

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rules of external sandhi for anusv ra
Rules of external sandhi for anusvàra:

1. Word-final m ü before a word-initial consonant:

devam + paśyati `s/he sees the god'

devaü paśyati

devam + dadarśa `s/he saw the god'

devaü dadarśa

pårvam + sattvam `the former existence'

pårvaü sattvam

rules of external sandhi for anusv ra1
Rules of external sandhi for anusvàra:

2. Optionally, ü becomes a homorganic nasal before a following consonant:

üï before a velar consonant

ü¤ before a palatal consonant

üõ before a retroflex consonant

ün before a dental consonant

üm before a labial consonant

devaü + dadarśa `s/he saw the god'

devan dadarśa

slide4
This assimilation takes place neither before the fricatives (ś, ù, s, h) nor before r, and happens only rarely before the other semivowels:

übefore y

ü before v

ül before l

aśvaü + vinà `without a horse'

aśva vinà (written Añv!~ ivna)

rules of external sandhi for visarga
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

1. A word-final visarga remains unchanged before a word-initial labial or velar voiceless stop:

yaśaþ + pràpa `s/he obtained fame'

yaśaþ pràpa

puruùaþ + khanati `the man digs'

puruùaþ khanati

rules of external sandhi for visarga1
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

aśvaþ + tiùñhati `the horse stands'

aśvas tiùñhati

taiþ + ñaïkaiþ `with those hoes'

taiù ñaïkaiþ

tataþ + ca `and then'

tataś ca

rules of external sandhi for visarga2
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

3. Word-final àþà before any voiced sound:

devàþ + gacchanti `the gods go'

devà gacchanti

devàþ + àsate `the gods sit'

devà àsate

rules of external sandhi for visarga3
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

4. Word-final aþo before any voiced

consonant:

devaþ + gacchati `the god goes'

devo gacchati

devaþ + rocate `the god shines'

devo rocate

rules of external sandhi for visarga4
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

5. Word-final aþ  a before any vowel other than short a:

devaþ + àste `the god sits'

deva àste

devaþ + iha `the god here'

deva iha

rules of external sandhi for visarga5
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

6. When word-final aþ is followed by a, aþ o and the following a is elided (where elision is indicated by the used of the avagraha):

devaþ + asti `he is a god'

devo 'sti (written devae =iSt)

rules of external sandhi for visarga6
Rules of external sandhi for visarga:

7. Before a consonant, the words saþ `that' and eùaþ `this' behave exceptionally. Optionally, they lose their final þ before any consonant (voiced or voiceless):

saþ + gacchati `that one goes'

sa gacchati

eùaþ + puruùaþ `this man'

eùa puruùaþ

a rule of internal sandhi converting n to
A rule of internal sandhi converting n to õ

nõ when it is preceded in the same word by r, ù, or é, and is immediately followed by a vowel, semivowel, or nasal, provided that a palatal, retroflex, or dental consonant doesn't intervene between the r/ù/éand the n.

a rule of internal sandhi converting n to1

A rule of internal sandhi converting n to õ

né‑ + ‑nàm `of men (gen. pl.)' néõàm brahman‑ + ‑ya‑ `pious' brahmaõya-ràjàn‑ + ‑aþ `kings (nom. pl.)' ràjànaþ