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Methodology for the Use of Regional Planning Models to Assess Impact of Various Congestion Pricing Strategies.
Methodology for the Use of Regional Planning Models to Assess Impact of Various Congestion Pricing Strategies
Kaan Ozbaya, Satish Ukkusurib, Jose Holguin-Verasc, Shri Iyera, Ender Faruk MorgulaaRutgers Intelligent Transportation Systems Laboratory, Rutgers University, bPurdue University, cRensselear Polytechnic Institute
Congestion pricing was studied as part of a study on shifting commercial vehicle deliveries to the off-peak hours. The study estimated percentages of freight vehicle shifting to off-hours due to tax incentives given to businesses receiving their deliveries in the off-hours.
Congestion pricing was studied in conjunction with the off-hour delivery program to generate revenue to cover the cost of tax incentives provided, as well as to offer an additional incentive to switch to the off-hours.
A methodology is developed for the use of Regional Planning Models to quantify network-wide effects of various congestion pricing scenarios, using the New York metropolitan area as an example by charging a fee to enter the island of Manhattan.
NYMTC's macroscopic regional planning model, New York Best Practice Model (NYBPM), as well as an extracted sub-network running in a mesoscopic modeling tool, are used to test static and dynamic pricing scenarios, including a number of sub-scenarios varying the pricing strategies employed for both.
Case Study – New York (Manhattan)
Regional Planning Model (RPM)
New York Best Practice Model (NYBPM) used to test pricing for entering Manhattan – Runs in TransCAD
Figure 1: NYBPM Highway Network
A sub-network focusing on Manhattan and surrounding area is extracted from the RPM and calibrated for detailed analysis.
The sub-network can be run to produce independent results of the congestion pricing program, such as changes to link speeds or travel times, as well as to test other pricing measures such as dynamic pricing.
NYBPM’s extracted sub-network runs compatibly in the mesoscopic modeling tool Transmodeler, which can perform highway assignment as well as test dynamic pricing.
Figure 3: Extracted Sub-network for Static and Dynamic Pricing
Short-term: Changes to highway network when only the highway assignment module is re-run – observe changes to vehicles using tolled facilities and congestion reduction inside the charging zone.
Long-term: Full model is re-run to include effects to trips generated and mode choice, as well as effects on highway network – observe changes to demands as well as greater congestion reductions.
Short-term Results – Static Pricing
Net toll revenues are calculated and compared against the tax revenue lost from off-hour delivery incentives.
Figure 5: Net Annual Toll Revenue – Manhattan Crossings
Congestion effects are measured from the pricing scenario compared to the base-case.
Table 2: Travel Time Change When Existing Tolls are Doubled
Short-term Results – Dynamic Pricing
Figure 6: Average Hourly Toll Rates
Figure 7: No. of Vehicles Changing Paths Due to Dynamic Pricing
Cordon Area (Manhattan)
Congestion pricing is tested by increasing tolls on links entering a cordoned area in a regional planning model (RPM) and evaluating changes to travel patterns, mode choice, and highway network congestion.
Static pricing can be implemented in the macroscopic full regional model to study congestion and revenues from the shift scenarios.
A sub-network can be extracted from the full highway network to run in a mesoscopic or microscopic tool, to test both static and dynamic pricing.
Various pricing schemes an be tested in each of the network scenarios, including time-of-day pricing, vehicle class-based pricing, and full dynamic pricing.
Running only the highway assignment module in the RPM after increasing/adding tolls to enter the cordon area offers short-term results on changes to routes, number of vehicles using tolled facilities, and congestion.
Re-running the entire RPM (trip generation, distribution, mode choice, assignment) allows users to shift travel patters and modes, and presents a long-term effects of the pricing initiative.
Both the short-term and long-term demands and networks can be extracted from the RPM to use with the mesocopic or microscopic modeling tools.
Pricing Scenarios and Networks
Fixed charge (or increased toll) to enter Manhattan during the peak daytime hours (6am – 7pm).
Vehicles starting and staying within the cordon area face no charge.
Modeled by increasing the toll value for links crossing the cordon line currently having tolls, or increased the fixed cost of links crossing the cordon boundary that are currently free.
Manhattan Island has a fixed number of entry points in the highway network (20) making congestion/cordon/value pricing implementation simple.
7 of the 20 crossings are currently tolled (including all three from New Jersey.
Sub-scenarios increased tolls at existing 7 tolled facilities, all 20 crossings (true cordon pricing), or only the 3 crossings from New Jersey.
Other plans include congestion pricing for only the lower-half of the island – fixed costs of links crossing the cordon line are increased.
Tolls can change only by fixed time periods dictated by the model (e.g. AM Peak, Midday, PM Peak, Night).
Figure 2: Manhattan Crossings
Real-time traffic conditions are taken into account for determining the toll rate: travel speed, occupancy, and traffic delays.
Parameters are measured in real-time and the toll rates are updated within short time intervals.
Users are informed of the current toll rates and allowed to choose their route.
Toll rates determined in the mesoscopic model based on the occupancy of the tolled facility, and updated every five minutes:
Figure 4: Dynamic Toll Rates by Vehicle Class