Science of Hadith-6. Types of Al-Hadith Ad-Da’eef أنواع الحديث الضعيف. 1) Types of Al-Hadith Ad-Da’eef due to a gap in the sanad. Al-Munqati’ المنقطع Al-Mu’allaq المعلّق Al-Mursal المرسل Al-Mu’dal المعضل Al-Mudallas المدلّس Al-Mursal Alkhafee المرسل الخفي.
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Types of Al-Hadith Ad-Da’eefأنواع الحديث الضعيف • 1) Types of Al-Hadith Ad-Da’eef due to a gap in the sanad. • Al-Munqati’ المنقطع • Al-Mu’allaq المعلّق • Al-Mursal المرسل • Al-Mu’dal المعضل • Al-Mudallas المدلّس • Al-Mursal Alkhafee المرسل الخفي
Al-Hadith Al-Munqati’الحديث المنقطع • In Arabic, it means disconnected or cut-off. • Definition: Any Hadith whose isnaad is not connected , however the disconnection occurs. • Status of Al-Munqati’: All the scholars of Hadith agreed that Al-Hadith Al-Munqati’ is da’eef, since the state of the missing narrator is unknown.
Al-Hadith Al-Mu’allaqالحديث المعلّق • In Arabic, it means anything that is suspended or hanging. • Definition: It is the hadith which has one narrator or more deleted from the beginning of the Isnaad. • It might include the hadith which has the whole isnaad deleted like when Imam Bukharee said:” The prophet (pbuh) used to remember Allah(SWT) all the time.” • Status of Al-Mu’allaq: It is rejected since it is missing the condition of connection. • Al-Hadith Al-Mu’alla in Saheeh Al-bukharee: • Stated in a definite form, like “he said”, then it is saheeh. • Quoted in a weak form, like “ It was said” . It can not be considered saheeh until a connected isnaad can be found for that particular hadeeth.
Al-Hadith Al-Mursal • In Arabic, it means any thing which was set free. • Definition: It is the hadith which was referred to Rasullullah (pbuh) by a Tabi’ee or a sahabi who did not hear it from the prophet (pbuh). • Example: when Saeed ibn Al-Musayib narrates that the Prophet (pbuh) said “such and such”.
Ruling of Al-Hadith Al-Mursalحكم الحديث المرسل • Al-Hadith Al-Mursal is to be rejected, since it missed one of the conditions of Authenticity ( The connection of the isnaad) and we don’t know who is missing. He may not be a companion and he may be a weak narrator. However, some scholars have different opinions regarding the ruling of Al-Mursal. There three famous opinions: • 1) Al-Mursal is Da’eef: This is the position of most of the scholars of Hadith and many scholars of Fiqh.
Al-Mursal -continued • 2) Accepted and used as a proof: This is the position of Imam Abou Hanifah , Malik and a famous opinion of Imam Ahmed. This is based upon the fact that it would be impossible for a Taabi’ee who is thiqah to report something from the Prophet (pbuh) which he did not hear from a reliable source.
Al-Mursal - continued • 3) Accepted with some conditions: This is the position of Imam Shafi’ee and some other scholars. The conditions are: • That the one who does irsaal is a senior Tabi’ee. • That the hadith is narrated by another mursal chain. • That the hadith is supported by a fatwa from a sahabi or fatawas from the majority of the scholars or the text of the hadith goes with a good analogy (qiyaas).
Mursal of a Sahabiمرسل الصحابي • Mursal of a Sahabi is a hadith which a companion reported, but he did not hear it directly from the prophet (pbuh). It usually happens due to his young age, late reversion to Islam or absence. • Example: Saeed ibn Jubair narrated from ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) , he said: that Abu Lahab said to the Prophet (pbuh) :May you perish. You gathered us only for this reason? Then Abu Lahab went away. So surat Almasad “ Perish the hands of Abu Lahab” was revealed. (reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim). This hadith is a Mursal of a Sahabi because Ibn Abbas was born before the Hijrah by three years, but this incident happened after the Prophet (pbuh) was given the message by three years. So this incident took place 7 years before the birth of Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him).
The status of Mursal As-Sahabi • It is saheeh and used as proof, since the sahaba usually don’t narrate from a taabi’ee, and if they do then they mention the source of their hadith. If they don’t say anything, then they will be narrating from another companion, and all of them are trustworthy and reliable.