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Epilepsy. By Kat, Phoebe & Krupa. What is it. Episodic spontaneous seizures resulting from paroxysmal uncontrolled discharge of neurons within the CNS Its caused by a dysbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory systems. Neurotransmitters. GABA – main inhibitory neurotransmitter

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Epilepsy


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epilepsy

Epilepsy

By Kat, Phoebe & Krupa

what is it
What is it
  • Episodic spontaneous seizures resulting from paroxysmal uncontrolled discharge of neurons within the CNS
  • Its caused by a dysbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory systems
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • GABA – main inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • Most highly concentrated in substantianigra and globuspallidus
  • Glutamate – precursor of GABA
  • Therefore a lack of glutamate leads to a lack of GABA which results in epilepsy
what causes epilepsy
What causes epilepsy
  • Stimuli are not always necessary
  • But they can be:
    • Endogenous
    • Exogenous

They can be due to infection, hormonal dysbalance, visual or auditory stimuli, visual stimuli (photosensitive epilepsy)

seizure type
Seizure type
  • Generalized - bilateral

A seizure whose initial semiology indicatesmore than minimal involvement of both cerebral hemispheres.

Can be grand mal or petit mal

  • Focal-unilateral

A seizure whose initial semiology indicates activates only part of one cerebral hemisphere.

course of seizure
Course of seizure
  • Prodrome= mood or behavioural change preceding the attack
  • Aura = symptoms just before the attacks (specific sensation)
  • Attack = seizure
  • Postictal period = time immediately after the attack – confusion, disorientation, automatic behaviour
petit mal usually in children
Petit Mal – usually in children

1. Absentia petit mal (<30secs)

  • Sudden loss of consciousness- break of activity
  • EEG – spike round wave

2. Myoclonic petit mal – puberty

  • Sudden cramp of upper limbs
  • No loss of consciousness

3. Akinetic – no movements

  • pre-school age
  • Sudden flexors cramp
  • Short unconsciousness
grand mal deep unconsciousness
Grand Mal –deep unconsciousness
  • Tonic phase (fall)
    • General spasm of muscles
    • stop of respiration – cyanosis
    • Mydriasis– no light reaction
  • Clonic Phase
    • About 2mins
    • Symmetrical cramps
  • Post-Paroxysmal Phase
    • Unconsciousness
    • Respiratory difficulties
    • Amnesia, confusion, aggressiveness
status epilepticus
Status Epilepticus
  • Serious complication
  • 5-10% ends in death
  • Uninterrupted grand mal seizures
  • Constant unconsciousness
  • Heart, lung failure and brain oedema occur
references
references
  • Pathophysiology – basic overview for medical students, by Kuba and Kubova
  • Department of Neurology -MUDr. Helena Hojdíková
  • www.wikipedia.com