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Adaptive Software Transactional Memory

Adaptive Software Transactional Memory

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Adaptive Software Transactional Memory

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  1. Adaptive Software Transactional Memory by Virendra J. Marathe William N. Scherer III Michael L. Scott University of Rochester

  2. Talk Outline • Software Transactional Memory (STM) • Design space of STMs • Explored four design dimensions • Adaptive STM • Adapts behavior in two dimensions • Based on underlying workload • Experimental Results • Conclusion

  3. Transactional Memory • Multi-core architectures are the future • Concurrent programming will become common • Lock-based programming is hard • Transactional Memory (TM) simplifies concurrent programming significantly

  4. Software Transactional Memory (STM) • Transaction: A sequence of instructions, executed atomically • In STM, transactions run in software • Requires hardware support for simple atomic instructions (e.g. compare-and-swap) • Example: DSTM (Herlihy et. al.) and OSTM (Fraser and Harris)

  5. STM Mechanics • Transactional Memory Objects, TMObjects (courtesy DSTM), as wrappers of shared objects • Transactions – • ACTIVE, ABORTED, or COMMITTED state • Open TMObjects (read or write mode) • Acquire TMObjects to be changed • Atomically commit updates • Abort contenders • Read Sharing: No TMObject acquisition • Optimization: Release opened TMObjects early

  6. STM Design Space - I • Several design dimensions of recently proposed STMs • Acquire Semantics – when to acquire? • Eager Acquire – acquire TMObjects at open time • Early detection of conflicts • Lazy Acquire – acquire TMObjects at commit time • Reduce window of contention • Incurs extra bookkeeping and transaction validation cost

  7. STM Design Space - II • Object Referencing Style: Direct and Indirect Direct Referencing Indirect Referencing TMObject TMObject Data Indirection Object Used to acquire objects Old Data New Data

  8. STM Design Space - III • Metadata Structure: What does an acquired TMObject look like? Per TMObject Metadata Per TMObject Metadata Per Transaction Metadata TMObject1 TMObject2 TMObject1 TMObject1 TMObject2 TMObject2 Indirection Indirection Indirection Indirection Transaction New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject2 New & Old Data TMObject2 New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject2 Transaction Transaction

  9. STM Design Space - III • Metadata Structure: What does an acquired TMObject look like? Per Transaction Metadata TMObject1 TMObject2 • TMObject lookup is expensive • Need to release acquired objects • - Release requires N extra CASes Transaction New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject2

  10. STM Design Space - III • Metadata Structure: What does an acquired TMObject look like? Per TMObject Metadata Per TMObject Metadata TMObject1 TMObject1 TMObject2 TMObject2 • Need not release acquired objects • Extra indirection overhead if not • acquired objects released Indirection Indirection Indirection Indirection New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject1 New & Old Data TMObject2 New & Old Data TMObject2 Transaction Transaction

  11. STM Design Space - IV • Progress Conditions • Obstruction freedom: Transactions make progress in isolation • Admits livelocks, need contention management • Lock freedom: At least one transaction makes progress • Requires additional overhead e.g. ordering, helping

  12. STM Design Space: The Big Picture obstruction-free lock-free • White areas have nothing in particular to recommend them • Grey areas seem like distinctly bad ideas • ASTM adapts across entire quadrant DSTM ASTM indirect direct indirect per-transaction per-object OSTM eager lazy eager

  13. Adaptive STM Design Choices • Obstruction freedom • Simple and efficient • Per object metadata • Reduced-cost object cleanup • Adaptive object referencing style • Direct  Indirect • Adaptive acquire semantics • Eager  Lazy

  14. Adaptation I: Object Acquisition Direct access for reader transactions TMObject Data ACTIVE Writer Transaction

  15. Adaptation I:Object Acquisition TMObject Data Copy ACTIVE Writer Transaction Transaction Old Version New Version Indirection Object Data Replica (DSTM style)

  16. Adaptation I:Object Acquisition Direct to Indirect Object Referencing Style Transition TMObject Data Copy CAS ACTIVE Writer Transaction COMMITTED Writer Transaction Transaction Old Version New Version Indirection Object Data Replica

  17. Adaptation I:Reading an Acquired Object Indirection in accessing the data object TMObject ACTIVE Transaction COMMITTED Transaction Transaction Old Version New Version Old Data Indirection Object New Data ACTIVE Reader Transaction

  18. Adaptation I:Reading an Acquired Object Indirection in accessing the data object TMObject ACTIVE Transaction COMMITTED Transaction Transaction CAS Old Version New Version Old Data Indirection Object New Data ACTIVE Reader Transaction

  19. Adaptation II:Acquire Semantics • Eager acquire usually wins over lazy acquire • Exception: transactions that intersperse many early releases between writes • Window of contention larger with eager acquire than with lazy acquire semantics

  20. Adaptation II:Adaptive Acquire • An acquire adaptation heuristic: • Defaults to eager acquire • Maintain history of transactional accesses • If large number of early releases between writes, do lazy acquire the next time

  21. Experimental Setup • Implementation in Java 5 • 16-processor SunFire 6800, a cache coherent multiprocessor with 1.2 GHz UltraSPARC III processors • DSTM code borrowed from collaborators at Sun Labs • Local implementations of all other STMs • Several microbenchmarks to evaluate performance on different workloads

  22. Write Dominated Workloads IntSet – sorted set of integers • Transaction • inserts or • deletes node • Each object • is opened in • “write” mode • Eager Acquire • wins by a big • margin • Too much • bookkeeping • and validation • overheads • with Lazy • Acquire Eager STMs Lazy STMs

  23. Read Dominated Workloads RBTree – a concurrent red-black tree • Transaction • inserts or deletes • node • Only updated • nodes opened • in write mode • DSTM performs • worst due to • its extra level of • indirection • ASTM readers • eliminate this • indirection Other STMs DSTM

  24. Lazy Acquire and Early Release RandomGraph – a random graph • Graph • implemented as • a 2-D linked list • Transaction • inserts or • deletes node • Unaffected • nodes are early • released • Lazy Acquire • wins • ASTM catches • up with OSTM • and lazyASTM Lazy STMs Eager STMs

  25. Conclusion • Current STM designs are workload sensitive • Adaptivity makes performance robust across different workloads • Study of four STM design dimensions • Adaptivity on two dimensions • Acquire Semantics • Object Referencing Style • More dimensions of adaptivity need to be explored; e.g. visible vs. invisible reads

  26. Thank You

  27. Write Dominated Workloads - II LFUCache – Least Frequently Used Page Replacement • A priority • queue heap • that simulates • LFU page • replacement • Pages are • picked • randomly from • a Zipf • distribution • Eager Acquire • wins by a big • margin • Too much • bookkeeping • overhead • with Lazy Acquire

  28. Read Dominated Workloads - I IntSetRelease – sorted set of integers, with early release • Transaction • inserts and • deletes nodes • Each object • is opened in • “read” mode • and released • early when • traversing to the • next node