before the noun n.
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  1. before the noun POSITION: FORM: Singular ORDER: Opinion / fact        size shape colour origin opinion age   material purpose / type

  2. order of adjectives opinion size shape age colour origin material purpose/type noun nice big round old blue French glass fruit bowl What is it like? How big is it? What size is it? What shape is it? How old is it? What age is it? What colour is it? Where is it from? Where does it come from? What is it made of? What is it for? What type/kind/sort is it?

  3. ADVERBS THAT MODIFY ADJECTIVES Adjectives can be divided into 2 categories: BASE ADJECTIVESSTRONG ADJECTIVES BIG ENORMOUS HOT BOILING TIRED EXHAUSTED COLD FREEZING INTERESTING FASCINATING BAD HORRIBLE GOOD WONDERFUL DIRTY FILTHY SURPRISED ASTONISHED AFRAID TERRIFIED CLEVER BRILLIANT LITTLE TINY

  4. We can modify adjectives with INTENSIFIERS / ADVERBS BASE ADJECTIVES rather,a bit, completely(negative adjectives) very, really, extremely, fairly, quite STRONG ADJECTIVES Absolutely, totally, utterly, (really) EXAMPLES: Very good; fairly small; rather stupid Absolutely fantastic; totally exhausted

  5. QUESTIONS ∗ASKING FOR INFORMATION ∗ ASKING FOR CONFIRMATION ∗ ASKING FOR PERMISSION ∗ MAKING REQUESTS ∗ MAKING OFFERS ∗ MAKING INVITATIONS ∗ MAKING SUGGESTIONS ∗ SHOWING FRIENDLY INTEREST

  6. What’s your D.O.B? Do you need advice? Is it O.K. if I sit here? Could you give me more details, please? Can I help? Would you like to go to the cinema? Shall I help you to carry the shopping? How are things at home? QUESTIONS

  7. TWO basic types of questions CONFIRMATION / CONTRADICTION INFORMATION YES-NO questions WH- questions

  8. YES – NO Questions Inversion of the AUXILIARY verb with the SUBJECT TO BE: Affirmative: You are in my class. Question : Are you in my class? Affirmative: You were in my class. Question : Were you in my class? Affirmative: You are going home. Question : Are you going home?

  9. PRESENT PERFECT. She has been to London recently Has she been to London recently? PAST PERFECT. He had already left when you arrived Had he already left when you arrived? FUTURE. They will finish before 5p.m. Will they finish before 5p.m.? CONDITIONAL. You would do it Would you do it?

  10. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS WH – WHAT an object WHERE a place WHO a person WHEN a time WHY a reason WHICH between two WHOSE possession

  11. Combinations with “WHAT” + noun What time.. What day.. What colour.. What size.. What shape… What nationality… Combinations with “HOW” + adjective How old… How often…. How much… How many…. How far… How long OBJECT QUESTIONSbegin with the interrogative pronounwhat, where, who, why, when, whose, which, how

  12.    MAIN VERB AUXILIARY VERB SUBJECT QUESTION WORD WHENDO I FINISH? WHAT TIMEWILLYOU ARRIVE? WHEREHASHE GONE? WHAT DIDWEKNOW? HOW MUCHSHOULDYOUTAKE? WHOCAN THEY SEE?

  13. SUBJECT QUESTIONSWhen the subject of the question is the interrogative pronoun the verb remains affirmative, so you do not use: DO, DOES,DID • WHO, WHICH, WHAT, HOW MUCH/MANY • Who wants to go out? • Which animals live in the jungle? • What happened next? • How much money is spent on useless products? • How many people live in Ferrara?

  14. QUESTIONS WITH PREPOSITIONS • Where are you from? • Who did he talk to? • What are they talking about? • What will you spend the money on? • What is the book about? • What are we waiting for?

  15. FIRST CONDITIONAL If +simple present+simple future If I’m lucky, I’ll catch a big fish. If I catch a big fish, we’ll have it for dinner. If I go home without a fish. my wife won’t be pleased If he doesn’t catch a fish soon, he’ll move to anotherplace he may move

  16. FIRST CONDITIONAL Represents a possibile situation (more realistic)‏ SECOND CONDITIONAL Represents an improbable situation (less realistic)‏ IF + SIMPLE PAST + CONDITIONAL

  17. 3rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations in the past) e.g. If Tom had studied harder, he would have passed the exam. PAST PERFECT = HAD + PP PAST CONDITIONAL = WOULD HAVE + PP IF + HAD ………., WOULD HAVE …….

  18. 3rd conditional : If + past perfect + past conditional ( imaginary situations in the past) e.g. If Tom had studied harder, he would have passed the exam. PAST PERFECT = HAD + PP PAST CONDITIONAL = WOULD HAVE + PP IF + HAD ………., WOULD HAVE …….

  19. FUTURE FORMS There are various ways of interpreting the future: PRESENT CONTINUOUS ( I am doing)‏ (INTENTIONAL FUTURE I am going to do)‏ SIMPLE FUTURE ( I will do ) FUTURE CONTINUOUS ( I will be doing ) FUTURE PERFECT ( I will have done )‏ MAY / MIGHT ( I may do )‏

  20. PRESENT CONTINUOUS USE: to show you are talking about your FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS: e.g. Appointments & organised events, official arrangements TIME EXPRESSIONS e.g. Tonight, at eight, this…weekend, next….. in April, The time element is IMPORTANT

  21. THE INTENTIONAL FUTURE .USE (i) to talk about your intentions and decisions already taken (before the moment of speaking)‏ e.g. I’m going to concentrate on my career from now on. I’m going to buy a new car next week (ii) To indicate an imminent action based on present evidence: e.g. Look at those black clouds. It’s going to rain. TIME EXPRESSIONS: In this form time expressions are secondary, as the emphasis is on the INTENTION of the speaker and not the TIME of the action

  22. THE SIMPLE FUTURE USE: (i) to state a new decision (at the moment of speaking)‏ e.g. A: I’m going to have lunch now. B: O.K. I’ll come with you (ii) To make predictions & express opinions. e.g.I think the government will make new cuts. I know….. I’m sure …… I hope there will not be any more cuts.

  23. FUTURE CONTINUOUS USE:to talk about something happening around a certain time in the future e.g. In five years’ time I’ll be retiring This time next week I’ll be travelling to the USA FUTURE PERFECT USE: to talk about something completed by a certain time in the future. e.g. I will have worked in this department for 10 years by next June.

  24. SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT DEFINED TIME UNDEFINED TIME vs  Last …..  Just  Already  Ago  Ever  Yesterday  Never  In …1990  On …Monday  Yet  When I was young  Today • When / What time….? • In …London • Since / For • How long?

  25. PRESENT PERFECT vs SIMPLE PAST The PRESENT PERFECT can express  an action at an indefinite time before now E.g. I’ve been to Europe and Asia, but I’ve never been to America Peter has broken his leg. So now he cannot walk. Ifourattentionmoves to the time of an action thenwe must use THE SIMPLE PAST E.g. I went to the UnitedStates in 1987. Peter brokehislegwhen he was in the mountains in April.

  26. WHAT ARE MODAL VERBS? The modal verbs are used to express concepts of : • NECESSITY • POSSIBILITY • OBLIGATION • ABILITY • ADVICE • REQUESTS • DEDUCTION

  27. CAN & MUST • NO INFINITIVE • NO GERUND • NO “S” IN 3RD PERSON PRESENT • NO “DO/DOES” • NO “TO” IN THE FOLLOWING VERB THE MISSING PARTS ARE PROVIDED BY OTHER VERBS: • CAN = TO BE ABLE ; MAY • MUST = TO HAVE TO

  28. To know how / to be able May/Might May/ to be allowed Could

  29. OBLIGATION HAVE TO • External obligation - Somebody else has made the decision. The obligation has come from outside the speaker. e.g. All children have to go to school. I have to do an exam next week. MUST • Personal obligation – the speaker has made the decision. He imposes the obligation on himself. e.g. I must telephone my dentist for an appointment. I’m gaining weight, I must go on a diet. I must check the time of the meeting.

  30. DO NOT HAVE TO • It is not necessary - the sense of obligation has been removed. e.g. Ann is rich, she doesn’t have to work. Entrance to the museum is free- you don’t have to pay. You don’t have to wear a uniform for this job. MUST NOT • Prohibition- the idea of obligation is maintained e.g. Ann is not well, she mustn’t work. You mustn’t smoke in a petrol station. It’s a secret. You mustn’t tell anyone. You mustn’t enter this room when the patient is having an X-ray.