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Database System Concepts and Architecture s. Indra Budi [email protected] Which of the following is a problem of lists that is solved by using a database?. data inconsistencies problems adding data problems deleting data missing data All of the above.

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which of the following is a problem of lists that is solved by using a database
Which of the following is a problem of lists that is solved by using a database?
  • data inconsistencies
  • problems adding data
  • problems deleting data
  • missing data
  • All of the above
In database processing systems, the data is directly accessed only by the….
  • In database application processing systems, the user interacts directly with the…
evolution of computing
Evolution of computing
  • Database has evolved since nearly every stage of computing, from:
    • mainframes, which are monolithic
    • Client-server
    • Web-based
data models
Data Models
  • A collection of concepts used to describe the structure of a database
    • Data types
    • Relationships
    • Constraints
    • Etc
categories of data models
Categories of Data Models
  • Conceptual data models: high level
  • Physical data models: how data is actually stored in a disk
  • Representational data models: somewhere between those two… let’s see…
representational data model
Representational data model
  • Relational data model (our main discussion in this class)
  • Network data model (uses directed graphs)
  • Hierarchical data model (history…)
  • Object data model (this is new!)
database schemas
Database schemas
  • Schemas: description of the database, but not the database itself!
  • Example of a schema diagram:
Not included in the schema diagram above:
    • Data types?
    • Relationships?
    • Constraints, such as “students in CS major must take CS1310…”
database states
Database states
  • Also called ‘snapshot’
  • After we define, generally a database is at the ‘empty state’
  • We get the ‘initial state’ after we first load the database
  • Valid state is a state which satisfies the structure and constraints in the schema
three schema model
Three Schema Model
  • ANSI/SPARC introduced the three schema model in 1975
  • It provides a framework describing the role and purpose of data modeling
three schema model cont
Three Schema Model (cont.)
  • External schema or user view
    • Representation of how users view the database
  • Conceptual schema
    • A logical view of the database containing a description of all the data and relationships
    • Independent of any particular means of storing the data
    • One conceptual schema usually contains many different external schemas
  • Internal schema
    • A representation of a conceptual schema as physically stored on a particular product
    • A conceptual schema can be represented by many different internal schemas
data independence
Data Independence
  • Application insulated from how data is structured or stored
  • Logical data independence: we can change the conceptual schema without changing the application program (internal schema)
  • Physical data independence: we can change the internal schema without changing the conceptual schema. It might be because file database must be reorganized for fine tuning.
database languages
Database Languages
  • Data definition language
  • View definition language
  • Data manipulation language
    • High level: SQL, set-at-a-time processing
    • Low level: VB, COBOL, record-at-a-time processing
dbms interfaces
DBMS Interfaces
  • Menu based interface
  • Forms based interface
  • Graphical user interface  utilize menu & forms
  • Natural language interface, you can ask, “Show me all the students with GPA > 3”
  • Parametric interface, such as application for Bank Teller
  • Interface to DBA: create account, granting account, changing schema, delete db, etc.
dbms utilities
DBMS utilities
  • Concurrency Control
  • Loading utility, or importer
  • Backup utility, usually to tape
  • File optimizer or reorganizer
  • Performance monitoring: fragmentation, load balancing
  • Commit & Rollback
  • etc
transaction an execution of a db program
Transaction: An Execution of a DB Program
  • Key concept is transaction , which is an atomic (all-or-nothing property), sequence of database actions (reads/writes).
  • Each transaction, executed completely, mustleave the DB in a consistent state, if DB isconsistent when the transaction begins.
    • Users can specify some simple integrity constraints on the data, and the DBMS will enforce these constraints.
    • Beyond this, the DBMS does not really understand thesemantics of the data. (e.g., it does not understandhow the interest on a bank account is computed).
    • Thus, ensuring that a transaction (run alone) preservesconsistency is ultimately the user’s responsibility!
classification of dbms
Classification of DBMS
  • Data model: relational, network, hierarchical, etc.
  • Number of users: Single user vs multi user
  • Centralized vs distributed
  • Price…!
  • OLTP support?
  • OLAP support (read page 842 of Elmasri)
Which of the following plays an important roles representing information about a real world in the database ?
  • The data definition language
  • The data manipulation language
  • The buffer manager
  • The data model
what is the differences
What is the differences ?
  • Database Schema Vs Database State ?
group assignment

Group Assignment

Comparative Study of Popular DBMS

which ones
Group 1 (Mahesa, Evan Bambang, Panca)


MS-SQL Server


Group 2 (Lamo, Siti, Arief)




Group 3 (Tyas, Dika, Ririn)

Oracle database


Borland Interbase

Which ones?
what to look for
What to look for ?
  • Use theories in Elmasri Ch 1 & 2, and Kroenke Ch 1!
  • Examples: function, concurrency control, type, price, primary use ?, performance, capacity, etc.
  • Paper, submitted to me, you can give me directly or email me at [email protected], due date on Tuesday, September 14th 2004
  • Presentation (of course)  Wednesday, September 15th 2004