Chapter 3 The Description of Learner Language. Preliminaries:. (1) Error Analysis (EA) 1) the change of attitudes toward errors · before late 1960s , seen as signs of learning failure;
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1) the change of attitudes toward errors
·before late 1960s, seen as signs of learning failure;
·in late 60s & early 70s, no longer seen as signs of learning failure, but as the evidence for the learners’ developing language system and can offer insights into how learners process the language data. Thus comes the study of learners’ errors ---– EA
not only for improving LT, but for probing the psychological/mental process of LL.
3) errors vs. mistakes
·How to judge?
·Should teachers pay much attention to students’ mistakes?
(to decide whether the learner’s ungrammatical form is an error or not)
(to classify errors)
(to find the source of the errors)
(to evaluate which errors are more serious and require more attention)
1. Corder’s classification of errors:
2. intralingual errors
2. language switch
errors resulting from LT: textbook E.
1. global errors (e.g. There has a book)
local errors (e.g. I’m student)
2. criteria for evaluating errors:
a. Should we correct students’ errors whenever they occur?
b. Should all of students’ errors be corrected?
Identify language errors of your own or of others and find out their sources.
·the first deep study of learner language
·no longer regards errors as signs of non-learning;
·regards errors as evidence of learners’ language development
·only focuses on learners’ errors, ignores learners’ correct performance, therefore cannot give a full picture of LL;
·mostly cross-sectional study, few longitudinal study, therefore provides us little information about how learners’ language develops over time.
1) developmental pattern in L2A
l formulaic speech
e.g. ‘How do you do?’
‘I don’t know.’
2.patterns: expressions that are only partially unanalysed and have one or more open slots
e.g. ‘Can I have a ___________?’
‘Would you like to __________?’
*the role of formulae
l syntactic and semantic simplification
1. morpheme study
2. sequence of acquisition
3. ‘L1=L2’ hypothesis
1)Selinker first put forward the term ‘interlanguage’ (IL);
2)definition (IL): learner’s systematic knowledge of an L2 that is independent of both his target language and L1.
event: ‘He arrived yesterday.’
·linguistic context activity: ‘He swimming yesterday.’
state: ‘He seems unhappy yesterday.’
formal: ‘My child is really troublesome.’
informal: ‘My kid’s a real pain.’
planned speech: less mistakes
unplanned speech: more mistakes
e.g. No look my card.
Don’t look my card.
vernacular style: ‘like a cup of tea?’
careful style: ‘Would you like a cup of tea?’
5.likely to fossilize (backsliding)
the study of speech acts in leaner language:
Ques. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5