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Chapter 3 The Description of Learner Language. Preliminaries:. (1) Error Analysis (EA) 1)  the change of attitudes toward errors · before late 1960s , seen as signs of learning failure;

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slide3
(1) Error Analysis (EA)

1)  the change of attitudes toward errors

·before late 1960s, seen as signs of learning failure;

·in late 60s & early 70s, no longer seen as signs of learning failure, but as the evidence for the learners’ developing language system and can offer insights into how learners process the language data. Thus comes the study of learners’ errors ---– EA

slide4
2)  EA: its purpose

not only for improving LT, but for probing the psychological/mental process of LL.

3)  errors vs. mistakes

·How to judge?

·Should teachers pay much attention to students’ mistakes?

slide5
4)  EA: major steps

1.collecting errors

2.identifying errors

(to decide whether the learner’s ungrammatical form is an error or not)

3.describing errors

(to classify errors)

4.explaining errors

(to find the source of the errors)

5.evaluating errors

(to evaluate which errors are more serious and require more attention)

slide6
Step 3: describing errors

1.  Corder’s classification of errors:

presystematic errors

systematic ~

postsystematic ~

2.  intralingual errors

interlingual ~

slide7
Step 4: explaining errors

learning strategies:

interlingual t~

1.  transfer

intralingual t~

2.  overgeneralization

3.  simplification

communication strategies

1.  avoidance

2.  language switch

errors resulting from LT: textbook E.

slide8
Step 5: evaluating errors

1. global errors (e.g. There has a book)

local errors (e.g. I’m student)

2. criteria for evaluating errors:

a.  intelligibility

b.  acceptability

c.  irritation

slide9
5)What attitudes should we hold toward students’ errors?

Questions:

a. Should we correct students’ errors whenever they occur?

b. Should all of students’ errors be corrected?

Assignment:

Identify language errors of your own or of others and find out their sources.

slide10
6)      Comments on EA

1.  contributions:

·the first deep study of learner language

·no longer regards errors as signs of non-learning;

·regards errors as evidence of learners’ language development

2.  weakness

·only focuses on learners’ errors, ignores learners’ correct performance, therefore cannot give a full picture of LL;

·mostly cross-sectional study, few longitudinal study, therefore provides us little information about how learners’ language develops over time.

slide11
(2) developmental pattern in learner’s language

1) developmental pattern in L2A

         silent period

l         formulaic speech

slide12
1. routines: expressions which are learnt as unanalysed wholes.

e.g. ‘How do you do?’

‘I don’t know.’

2.patterns: expressions that are only partially unanalysed and have one or more open slots

e.g. ‘Can I have a ___________?’

‘Would you like to __________?’

*the role of formulae

l   syntactic and semantic simplification

slide13
2) natural route in language development

1.       morpheme study

2.       sequence of acquisition

3.       ‘L1=L2’ hypothesis

slide14
(3) Variability of leaner language

1)Selinker first put forward the term ‘interlanguage’ (IL);

2)definition (IL): learner’s systematic knowledge of an L2 that is independent of both his target language and L1.

NL TL

IL IL

3)learner language

slide15
3)variability of learner lg.

1.Systematic variability

event: ‘He arrived yesterday.’

·linguistic context activity: ‘He swimming yesterday.’

state: ‘He seems unhappy yesterday.’

formal: ‘My child is really troublesome.’

·situational context

informal: ‘My kid’s a real pain.’

planned speech: less mistakes

·psychological context

unplanned speech: more mistakes

slide16
2.free variation

e.g. No look my card.

Don’t look my card.

3.(Tarone)

vernacular style: ‘like a cup of tea?’

careful style: ‘Would you like a cup of tea?’

slide17
5)Characteristics of IL:

1.systematic

2.permeable

3.transitional

4.variable

5.likely to fossilize (backsliding)

slide18
(4) pragmatic aspects of learner language

the study of speech acts in leaner language:

1.requests

2.apologies

3.refusals

Assignment:

Ques. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

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