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Chapter 12 DNA & RNA. Section 12 – 4 Mutations. Mutations. Key Concept : Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. Chromosomal mutations involve changes in whole chromosomes. Gene Mutations. Point Mutations Affect one nucleotide Occur at a single point in the gene sequence

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chapter 12 dna rna

Chapter 12DNA & RNA

Section 12 – 4Mutations

mutations
Mutations

Key Concept:Gene mutations result from changes in a single gene. Chromosomal mutations involve changes in whole chromosomes

gene mutations
Gene Mutations
  • Point Mutations
    • Affect one nucleotide
    • Occur at a single point in the gene sequence
    • Three Types:
        • Deletion
        • Insertion
        • Substitution
point mutations
Point Mutations

Frameshift Mutations

Result From

Insertions & Deletions

A nucleotide is added, or subtracted from the nucleotide sequence. This shifts the Codon grouping and drastically alters the amino acid sequence in the protein.

point mutations1
Point Mutations

Substitution

A single nucleotide is changed in the nucleotide sequence.

  • This may result in a change to a single amino acid in the protein.
  • The change to a single amino acid may or may not alter the proteins function.
chromosomal mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
  • Changes the number or structure of chromosomes
  • May change locations of genes on chromosome or the number of copies of some genes
chromosomal mutations1
Chromosomal Mutations

4 Types

  • Deletion
  • Duplication
  • Inversion
  • Translocation
deletion
Deletion

X

  • Deletion
    • Loss of all or part of a chromosome
duplication
Duplication
  • Duplication
    • Segment of chromosome is repeated
inversion
Inversion
  • Inversion
    • Chromosome or part of a chromosome is oriented in the reverse direction
translocation
Translocation
  • Translocation
    • Part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another,
    • nonhomologous chromosome