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TECHNOLOGICAL STEPS FOR PREPARATION OF FRUIT FREEZING. Proff . D-r Liubo Vrachar Technological faculty of Novi Sad, Serbia. INTRODUCTION. - The significance of the fruits and vegetables for the healthy nutrition is enormous and inviolable .

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technological steps for preparation of fruit freezing

TECHNOLOGICAL STEPSFOR PREPARATION OF FRUIT FREEZING

Proff. D-r LiuboVrachar

Technological faculty of Novi Sad, Serbia

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • - The significance of the fruits and vegetables for the healthy nutrition is enormous and inviolable .
  • - The fruits and the vegetables contains energy and protective substances.
  • - Thanks to their biochemical consistence the fruit and the vegetables serves for foods, strengthen the body sometimes are used as a medicine.
  • - Apart from the problem with enough quantity there is a problem with assurance of the high quality of all of the
  • -The biggest problem with the fruit and vegetable`s delivery is :
  • The season
  • Fast vitiation
slide3

- Solving the problem is in the permanent development of the fruit`s conserving technology.

  • - The task of the conserving technology is to find, develop and to create ways of conserving which can prolong the expiration date and consuming of the food under minimal chemical and physical changes.
  • - Apart from the nutrition and physiological valor it is important to save the organoleptic qualities of the fruits and vegetables.
  • - Depending on defining the physical, chemical of biological actions the way of conserving are devised in 4 groups:
slide4

1. Methods of reducing the biochemical changes in the fruits and vegetables through low temperatures, modified and controlled atmosphere.

  • 2. Methods through with is reduces the microbiological and enzyme activity and in that way is reduces the reproduction ability of the microorganisms, using
  • - low temperatures (freezing)
  • - water removal(drying, concentration);
  • -adding methods for increasing the osmosis pressure ( adding salt and sugar)
  • - increasing the acidity –/ marinating/ trough adding of lemon, wine, apple and milk acidity
  • 3. Methods in which the microorganisms are destroyed and the enzymes are deactivated where are used:
  • - high temperatures(pasteurization and sterilizing)
  • - облъчване (електромагнитно облъчване);
  • - usage of preservatives and antibiotics.
  • 4. Method through which with convenient meant it is changed the consistence of the micro flora- biofermentation of fruits and vegetables and sour – milk products.
slide5

- The task of the listed methods is to stop or slow the microbiological and enzyme activity but it can`t improve the quality of the damaged

  • - Through conserving and providing of longer expiration date of fruit and vegetables it is reached:
  • - regular supply of the customer in whole of the year and also in the years with low or missing harvest.
  • - regular supply of the customer in the inaccessible places
  • - quality and healthy nutrition through whole of the year
  • - „saving“of the surpluses of fruits and vegetables which can`t be consumed in fresh condition.
  • - stimulation of the agriculture producers through disposal provisions for unconsumed fruit and vegetables.
  • - more rational usage of the recourses
  • Providing new work positions
fruit preparation
FRUIT PREPARATION
  • Under “fruits” it is meant fruit – cultivated or grown alone, which are designed for people`s nutrition in fresh or processed condition.
  • The processing and the production of fruits today is one of the most significant actions in agriculture's processing countries, because the fruits:
  • - thanks to their rich and diverse content of useful substances the fruits feed, strengthen and are used as a medicine with their energy substances.
  • - thanks to their wide areal of growth , different time for growth, the advanced systems for transportation and storage, processing etc. it is assured the provision with fruit and vegetables through the whole year in all of the places.
  • - the fruit processing is one of the most profitable branch of the agricultural production.
  • - it takes a lot of labor work which is very important for many countries.
  • - it is produced in places where can not be growth other cultures ( region of mountains, sand soil).
  • - As it`s geographical distribution the fruits are devised in fruits from the temperate zone, fruits from the subtropical and fruits from tropical and according to the type of fruit are devised in:
slide7

Continental fruits

  • - from apple type(apple, peal, quince)
  • - stone fruit (plum, cherry, apricot, peach,...)
  • - strawberry type (strawberry, raspberry , blackberry, грозде, blueberry...)
  • -nuts type (walnut, hazelnut, almond, Chestnut ,pistachios...)
  • Subtropical fruits
  • - orange, lemon, grapefruit, olive, fig,mandarin pomegranate…
  • Tropical fruits
  • - banana, pineapple, mango, papaya, avocado, dates, cocoa, coconut...
  • Today in the world are produced around 260 million tons of fruits, 25 from which are bananas,23% oranges,16%apples,5% olives. The biggest world producer of fruits is Brazil – 26 million of tons, India -19 million of tons, than USA, China, Russia, Italy etc.
  •  FAO shows that the produces quantities fruits can satisfy only 1/3 from the customer`s need.
fruit s freezing
FRUIT`S FREEZING
  • - The fruit which are meant for freezing must meet the following requirements:
  • - to be fresh, wealthy and not damaged
  • - to be in the phase of optimal technological ripeness.
  • - to not have strange smell and taste
  • - to be without impurities
  • To not contain residues of pesticides above acceptable norms
  • - to be good for consummation and in technological ripeness – with optimal technological parameters and organoleptic qualities.
  • - The preparation of the fruits for freezing includes the following:
  • - harvesting of the crops and transportation
  • - storage /if it`s necessary/
  • - processing
slide9

- in the industry, depending on it`s physiological features , it`s consistency, shape and the phase of ripeness, the purpose and other factors the fruits are prepared and frozen in three categories

  • - individual frozen whole fruits
  • - individual frozen chopped fruits
  • - blended fruits- pulp
  • - The preparation of the fruits for freezing is specific for every sort and category. From technological point of view, no matter of type of the fruits their preparation serves for: separating mechanical impurity, separating of unfit fruits, to reduce the micro flora, to deactivate the enzyme systems, to stimulate the positive orgranoleptic qualities ,.etc.
  • - This task is realized through including of standard technological operation like, inspection calibration, washing, handle removal, peeling, pyrene removal, extraction of seeds, cutting, first thermal treat, blending, cooling.
  • - all of the technological operations are made for assure the quality that meet the standard requirements.
freezing of whole fruits individual with the quality rollend
Freezing of whole fruits, individual, with the quality “ROLLEND"
  • In this category the most frozen fruits are:
  • - raspberry
  • - blackberry
  • - strawberry
  • - cherry
  • - blueberry
  • - blackcurrant
  • The technological process for preparation and freezing the fruits includes the standard operations connected with the preparation, freezing and packing of fruits:
raspberry
RASPBERRY
  • - In the world are selected around 1200 sorts red and black raspberries.
  • - In the intensive way of grow it is harvested up to 30t/ha
  • The fruits of the raspberry are with nice color, very tasty, with specific aroma, tender consistence, juicy and nice appearance with high nutrition, diet, prophylactic and medicine valor.
  • - The raspberry meant for freezing must be optimal grow and fresh with normal developed healthy fruits . With nice color, without mold and damages, leafs or handles.
  • - The harvesting of the raspberry crop is multiple – 8 to 12 crossings to full technological maturity.
  • - The expenses of harvesting the crop takes to 70% from the fruit valor.
  • - If it`s necessary the raspberry can be stored in cameras in the temperature of 0oCand relative humidity 85-90% for 3 to 6 days.
  • - The quality of the harrow, packed and transported raspberry is prepared for freezing
  • - To - 20°C the frozen raspberry can be stored for 12
blackberry
Blackberry
  • - There are selected above 1000 sorts of blackberries with yield of 25t/ha through intensive growth.
  • - The fruits of the blackberry are with high diet, prophylactic and medicine valor.
  • - The crop is harvested is multiple– 5 to 10 crossings in every5 to 6 days.
  • - The blackberry meant for freezing must be optimal grow and fresh with normal developed healthy fruits . With nice color, without mold and damages, leafs or handles.
  • - According to its fruit and growing of the blackberry it is very similar to the raspberry.
  • - The robust fruitsof the blackberry can be stored in the temperature of 0,5 – 1,0°C and relative humidity of 90%
  • -The quality of the harrow, packed and transported blackberry is prepared for freezing as the raspberry is.
  • - The durability of the frozen blackberry as of the frozen raspberry is in cameras under the temperature of – 20oC
strawberry
STRAWBERRY
  • - There are selected above 10.000 sorts of blackberries with yield of 25t/ha
  • - The strawberries are very healthy and very useful fruit with prophylactic and therapeutically valor..
  • - The fruits meant for freezing must be in optimal maturity, robust, with equal size, with nice red color, nice aroma of the fruit.
  • - The harvesting of the crop is multiply.
  • - The strawberry can be stored in the temperature of - 0,5 to 0°C and relative humidity of 85 -90% for 3 to 5 days.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit strawberry can be up to 12 months.

- The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below.

cherry
CHERRY
  • - This is a cosmopolitan fruit – it is well known in the whole world.
  • - There are selected above 1000 sorts of cherries with yield of 40t/ha
  • - The fruits of the cherry are fresh with diuretic, ant rheumatic, detoxifying, laxative and an anti-infective quality.
  • - The cherry meant for freezing is harvested in technological maturity
  • -The fruits must be fresh, robust, whole, without handles with color and appearance convenient for the sort.
  • - If it`s necessary it can be stored up to 3 weeks in temperatures of от - 1 до 0 oC and relative humidity of 85 до 90% .
  • - it can be frozen without pyrene
  • - time for freezing is 10 to 15 minutes
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit cherry can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 22 to -25C.
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below
blueberry
BLUEBERRY
  • - It is well known as a wild growing fruit but today can be found in the plantation with yield of 10 t/ha.
  • - The fruit is like bean with typical blue-black color with high nutrition valor and also with pharmaceutical, diet and technological valor.
  • - The blueberry can be stored in the temperature of 2 to 4°C and relative humidity of 85 -90% for 3 to 4 weeks.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit cherry can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 20 C
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below
blackcurrant
BLACKCURRANT
  • - After the strawberry it is the most significant strawberry plant in the world. It gives up to 20t/ha.
  • - The blackcurrant is with very high nutritional, pharmaceutical, diet and technological valor
  • - The latest researches shows that it is useful for high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, varicose veins, and can be administered in the form of a juice or similar products.
  • - The harvest is cropped once using combine.
  • - The blueberry can be stored in the temperature of -1C and relative humidity of 90% for 15 days.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit blackcurrant can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 20 C
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below
freezing of cutted fruits
FREEZING OF CUTTED FRUITS
  • - Beside the freezing of the whole fruits the today`s industry freezes wholesale and cut fruits in different shapes.
  • - After adequate preparation ( harvesting, washing ,selecting, calibration) of the stone fruit (plum, apricot, peach) and apple fruits ( apple, pear)it is removed the pyrenes and the seeds and the fruits are cut in different shapes – half, segment, deice – depending on the customer`s
  • - The application of the frozen cut fruits in the whole years very wide.
slide28
PLUM
  • - There are selected above 2.500 sorts of plum in fresh and processed state with yield of 20 to
  • - The dynamic of the growth (from July to October) is main harvest in the second half of August and September.
  • - The plum which is frozen the most in half peaces is harvest in technological ripeness.
  • - The optimal ripeness is defined in base of the color and the inside of the meat, the
  • - the-most quality is the hand harvested crop and with shakers where it`s possible.
  • - quality harvested plum can be stored up to 3 months in temperatures of 0 C and relative humidity of 85%.
slide29

- The fruits prepared for freezing must be without handles, clean, without worms and without partial damages.

  • - The preparation and the freezing of the half plums becomes on the same line as the cherries.
  • - For calibration is used calibrators for cherries which is adjusted at the following way: under 28mm, from 20 to 32mm, and from 32 to 37m and the biggest one (37mm) can be cut by hands.
  • - For taking out of the pyrenes it is used machine for taking out of the pyrenesof cherries but with change of the plate ( with bigger holes) and instead of needles is used knifes which cut the fruit in two pieces. Except the machine removal of the pyrenes it is used often also the hand-removal – cutting the fruit and taking out the pyrene.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit plum can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 25 C
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below
apricot and peach
APRICOT AND PEACH
  • - The application of freezing apricots and peaches , cut in the desire shape must be harvested in technological ripeness with nice color and aroma, with rough but not that much meat and with easy taking off of the pyrene.
  • - After the receiving, sorting, washing and calibration is made also mechanical cutting of halves, the pyrene is took out and it is peeled the skin for chemical treatment.
  • - The prepared halves are frozen in halves or in cubes using lemon acid of using antioxidant treatment ( 1 to 2% lemon acid or ascorbic acid).
  • - The freezing becomes on tunnels in line under the temperature of -18C in the center of the fruit.

- The durability of the frozen fruit apricot and peach can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 20 C

  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below
apple and pear
APPLE AND PEAR
  • - For apple and pear freezing in the category of cut or whole fruits is necessary for the fruits to be well ripped with rough structure.
  • - For the apple are convenient sorts with sour taste, and fro pears – sorts with tender white paint and fragile cell structure.
  • - After the receiving, washing, selecting and calibration there is mechanical peeling, seeds removal, cutting in desired shape – halves, deice, segments, antioxidant and after that freezing one by one.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit apple and pear can be up to 12 months in temperatures from – 20 C
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below

.

freezing of blended fruits pulp
FREEZING OF BLENDED FRUITS - PULP
  • - The frozen fruit pulp is defined as semi ready product, which is reached through temperatures of – 35 °C or lower in that way that the product will come out with leveled temperature of - 18 °C or lower.
  • -The production of frozen pulps from continental fruitsis based the most of apple fruits (apple, pear, quince) and of stone fruits (plum, apricot, peach, cherry) and strawberry fruits ( strawberry, raspberry, blueberry)
  • - The fruits , meant for fruit pulp production must be in technological ripeness, with maximum content if dry substances, sugar and aroma.
  • - The frozen pulps from this fruits are known as the best quality conserved pulps which can be used in whole of the year and has wide application in the food industry – for juices, jelly products, baby`s food, ice crams in the confectionery industry etc.
  • - The durability of the frozen fruit cherry can be up to 12 months in temperatures from - 20 C
  • The technological process of freezing is shown on the scheme below