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Presentation On Computer’s Network. Topic:-Framing & it’s methods. Group members:- Anuj Panday Chander kishore. Framing. Frames Are The Small data Units Created By Data Link Layer And The Process Of Creating Frames By The Data Link Layer Is Known As Framing.

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presentation on computer s network

Presentation On Computer’s Network

Topic:-Framing & it’s methods

Group members:-

AnujPanday

Chanderkishore

framing
Framing
  • Frames Are The Small data Units Created By Data Link Layer And The Process Of Creating Frames By The Data Link Layer Is Known As Framing.
framing method implemented by data link layer are
Framing Method Implemented By Data Link Layer Are:-
  • Character Count.
  • Starting & Ending Characters With Character Stuffing.
  • Starting & ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.
  • Physical Layer Coding Violation.
character count
Character Count.
  • This Method Specifies The Number Of Characters That Are Present In particular Frame.
  • This Information Is specified By using a Special Field In the Header Frame.
slide5

Character count

3

0

1

4

1

7

5

7

2

0

1

4

2

6

2

1

Frame 4

Frame 1

Frame 2

Frame 3

Character Count Method

starting ending characters with character stuffing
Starting & Ending Characters With Character Stuffing.
  • In this Method Frame Starts & End With a special Character That Mark The Beginning & End Of Frame.
  • Each character Begins With the ASCII Character Sequence DLESTX (data linkEscape Start Of Text ) And End With ASCII Character Sequence DLE ETX (data link escape End Of text)
starting ending characters with character stuffing7
Starting & Ending Characters With Character Stuffing.

A

B

C

D

Data From Network Layer

DLE

STX

A

B

C

D

DLE

ETX

Start Of Frame

Data

End Of Frame

Starting & Ending Characters Added By Link Layer

character stuffing
Character Stuffing.

data on Sender side

A

B

DLE

C

D

DLE

STX

A

B

DLE

DLE

C

D

DLE

ETX

Start Of Frame

Data

End Of Frame

data on Reciever side

A

B

DLE

C

D

starting ending flags with bit stuffing
Starting & ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.
  • In this Method , Each Begins & Ends With a Special Bit pattern 01111110 Called Flags.
  • There for Each frame starts With 01111110& also Ends with 01111110.
  • The Main Problem arises in this Method When The Flag byte 01111110 Appear as data.
  • This Problem Is Handled By technique called Bit stuffing That Is similar To character stuffing.
starting ending flags with bit stuffing10
Starting & ending Flags With Bit Stuffing.

Stuffing Performed By Data Link layer

01111110

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

01111110

Ending Flag BIT

Shifted Bit

Starting flag Bit

Data received by Network layer On reciever side After Performing Destuffing By data link Layer

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

BIT stuffing

physical layer coding violation
Physical Layer Coding Violation.
  • This Framing Method Is Used only In those network In which Encoding On The Physical Medium Contain some Redundancy.
  • Some LANs EncodeEach Bit Of DataBy using two Physical Bit i.e. Menchester coding is Used.
  • In this method Bit 1 Is encoded into high-low(10) Pair And Bit 0 Is Encoded Into low-high(01)pair shown in figure.
physical layer coding violation12
Physical Layer Coding Violation.

0

1

0

1

1

0

Menchester Encoding

slide13

Thank you

House Is open for Queries.