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War Industries Board

War Industries Board

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War Industries Board

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  1. War Industries Board • Distribution of raw materials • Price control • Standard specifications  Efficiency • Ex.  3 Shoe Colors Permitted

  2. Food Administration • Herbert Hoover • Modern Cultivation instruction • Efficiency in meal prep • “Food will win the war”

  3. War Labor Board • Environment of gov’t/business collaboration • Many anti-trust laws suspended • Board pushes for: • 8-hour work day • Right to unionize • War years see rise in wages, improvement of conditions, and surge in union membership.

  4. Results of This New Organization of the Economy? • Unemployment virtually disappeared. • Expansion of “big government.” • Excessive govt. regulations in eco. • Some gross mismanagement  overlapping jurisdictions. • Close cooperation between public and private sectors. • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

  5. Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans • Espionage Act– 1917 • Sedition Act– 1918

  6. 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

  7. The Peace Process At Versailles

  8. Wilson’s 14 Points • 1 – 5: • Solution to problems that caused the war such as – SECRET TREATIES, TARIFFS, MILITARISM, & COLONIAL CONTROL. • 6 – 13: • Dealt with boundary changes in Europe • 14: • Called for creation of the League of Nations.

  9. Treaty’s Results • Germany  Reparations. • War-Guilt Clause • New countries formed: • Ottoman Empire Broken up into Iraq, Syria, Lebanon & Palestine • Austria & Hungary Separate • Finnish Independence from Russia • Formation of Yugoslavia & Czechoslovakia • Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, & Estonia  Independent nations. • Fragile Truce

  10. Treaty’s Weaknesses • Humiliation of Germany • Russia’s Post-revolutionary (Bolshevik) government feels ignored. • Treaty fails to address colonies, except stripping Germany of hers. • French refuse to grant Independence to colonies of Indochina  Rebel leader Ho Chi Minh. • Continued lack of European stability. • Self-Determination?

  11. U.S. Opposition to Treaty • Congressmen vs. League of Nations  America forced to set foreign policy according to other nations. • Wilson’s delegation included NO Senators • Wilson’s 8000 mile speaking tour (35 speeches in 22 days)  Stroke • Treaty never ratified; Separate treaty with Germany.