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Chapter 5: Threads. Overview Multithreading Models Threading Issues Pthreads Solaris 2 Threads Windows 2000 Threads Linux Threads Java Threads. Single and Multithreaded Processes. Benefits. Responsiveness Resource Sharing Economy Utilization of MP Architectures. User Threads.

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chapter 5 threads
Chapter 5: Threads
  • Overview
  • Multithreading Models
  • Threading Issues
  • Pthreads
  • Solaris 2 Threads
  • Windows 2000 Threads
  • Linux Threads
  • Java Threads

Operating System Concepts

single and multithreaded processes
Single and Multithreaded Processes

Operating System Concepts

benefits
Benefits
  • Responsiveness
  • Resource Sharing
  • Economy
  • Utilization of MP Architectures

Operating System Concepts

user threads
User Threads
  • Thread management done by user-level threads library
  • Examples

- POSIX Pthreads

- Mach C-threads

- Solaris threads

Operating System Concepts

kernel threads
Kernel Threads
  • Supported by the Kernel
  • Examples

- Windows 95/98/NT/2000

- Solaris

- Tru64 UNIX

- BeOS

- Linux

Operating System Concepts

multithreading models
Multithreading Models
  • Many-to-One
  • One-to-One
  • Many-to-Many

Operating System Concepts

many to one
Many-to-One
  • Many user-level threads mapped to single kernel thread.
  • Used on systems that do not support kernel threads.

Operating System Concepts

many to one model
Many-to-One Model

Operating System Concepts

one to one
One-to-One
  • Each user-level thread maps to kernel thread.
  • Examples

- Windows 95/98/NT/2000

- OS/2

Operating System Concepts

one to one model
One-to-one Model

Operating System Concepts

many to many model
Many-to-Many Model
  • Allows many user level threads to be mapped to many kernel threads.
  • Allows the operating system to create a sufficient number of kernel threads.
  • Solaris 2
  • Windows NT/2000 with the ThreadFiber package

Operating System Concepts

many to many model12
Many-to-Many Model

Operating System Concepts

threading issues
Threading Issues
  • Semantics of fork() and exec() system calls.
  • Thread cancellation.
  • Signal handling
  • Thread pools
  • Thread specific data

Operating System Concepts

pthreads
Pthreads
  • a POSIX standard (IEEE 1003.1c) API for thread creation and synchronization.
  • API specifies behavior of the thread library, implementation is up to development of the library.
  • Common in UNIX operating systems.

Operating System Concepts

solaris 2 threads
Solaris 2 Threads

Operating System Concepts

solaris process
Solaris Process

Operating System Concepts

windows 2000 threads
Windows 2000 Threads
  • Implements the one-to-one mapping.
  • Each thread contains

- a thread id

- register set

- separate user and kernel stacks

- private data storage area

Operating System Concepts

linux threads
Linux Threads
  • Linux refers to them as tasks rather than threads.
  • Thread creation is done through clone() system call.
  • Clone() allows a child task to share the address space of the parent task (process)

Operating System Concepts

java threads
Java Threads
  • Java threads may be created by:
    • Extending Thread class
    • Implementing the Runnable interface
  • Java threads are managed by the JVM.

Operating System Concepts

java thread states
Java Thread States

Operating System Concepts