The Renaissance in Italy. The Italian City-states. Italy conduit for travel and commerce between Europe and East Cities independent from kings and popes Merchant princes Medici family--powerful banking family Charitable to arts Civic humanism. Renaissance Humanism.
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The Italian City-states • Italy conduit for travel and commerce between Europe and East • Cities independent from kings and popes • Merchant princes • Medici family--powerful banking family • Charitable to arts • Civic humanism
Renaissance Humanism • Humans God greatest creation • Humanist: student of classical ideas • Glorified beauty and order in nature • Pico’s Oration: man had choice of goodness or evil in himself • Great reformers, artists, writers, inventors.
Lorenzo “The Magnificent” • 1462-92. Patron of the arts • Praised Plato; civic leader; poet • Wrote songs in Italian • Gave money and support to artists in Florence • Had many libraries, museums and palaces built for Florence
Ghiberti’s Baptistery Doors • Competition for Baptistery Doors--1401 • Ghiberti and Brunelleschi--Abraham and Isaac • Ghiberti won-- Classical style;48 years! • Michelangelo: “Gates of Paradise” • Story of Jacob & Esau: optical perspective
Brunelleschi’s Domes • Florence’s greatest Renaissance architect • Studied Rome’s ancient buildings • Domed roof over cathedral altar • Simplicity and reason • Pazzi Chapel--Roman architecture • Attempt by Pazzi on Lorenzo’s life in chapel
Florentine Painting: A Refined Classicism • Life-like figures, volume and perspective. • Fresco technique • Masaccio-- depth through modeling and atmospheric effects • The Tribute Money--chiaroscuro • Atmospheric and linear perspective
Sandro Botticelli • La Primavera blending of mythology and Christianity • Adoration of the Magi honored the Medici patrons. Includes himself in painting • Classical ruins anachronistic
Italian Renaissance Music • The Mass • Sacred motets in Latin • secular song • Guillaume Dufay--monody • Heinrich Isaac • Polyphonic songs: frottola and madrigal • Maddalena Casulana
Donatello • Brought back the free-standing nude: David • Used contrapposto • Biblical description of David: adolescent • Tuscan hat • Pagan (classical) rather than Christian
Michelangelo in Florence • By age 22 already rival to Donatello • In Rome: Pieta • Florence’s David: classical values with a biblical theme • Captured his spirit/ hero in stone
The Decline of Florence • Savonarola • Appealed to poor and working people • Condemned Church’s corruption and excesses of wealth • “Bonfire of the Vanities” • Defeated and burned at the stake • Message affected artists
Machiavelli’s The Prince • Florentine diplomat--described realities of political philosophy and power • The Prince masterpiece of political philosophy. Realistic • Describes the ideal prince or ruler: only strong, ruthless leaders keep country safe from foreign domination • Machiavellian: end justifies means
The Genius of Leonardo • Arts, sciences, engineering, mathematics • Not true to only one patron/ruler • Restless, inquisitive • True genius
Leonardo as Scientist • Notebooks: Mirror writing • Tanks, submarines, airplane • Lacked propulsion • Unpublished
Leonardo as Painter • The Last Supper • Madonna of the Rocks • Classical triangle composition: Renaissance • Mona Lisa • sfumato • Painting: the highest art
The Renaissance Man…and Woman • Leonardo: Renaissance man • Baldassare Castiglione: Universal man • Isabella d’Este Educated, cultured, refined tastes. Patroness of the arts; ruled her city in husband’s absence • Multi-talented
Patronage of the Renaissance • Wealthy church officials and families employed artists for beauty and entertainment: contracts • Popes and princes: Julius II and Leo X • Sometimes there were problems between patrons and artists
Josquin des Prez: Composer High Renaissance • Leo X meditated in the Sistine Chapel listening to the choir of acappella music. • Male musicians; girls had to have private lessons or attend a convent • Greatest composer of High Renaissance • Match between words and music, complex polyphony: word painting and imitation
Raphael • Julius II: apartments in the Vatican: stanze • Known for his Madonnas • School of Athens • Aristotle and Plato in center • Portraits of contemporary figures • Michelangelo front center figure • Raphael buried in Pantheon. Only artist to be buried there.
Michelangelo in Rome • 1505 Pope Julius II ordered Michelangelo to Rome to build his tomb • Captives: soul striving to break free from sin • Tomb unfinished. Moses embodies Michelangelo’s temper: terribilita • Mature man
Sistine Chapel Ceiling • 1508: Julius asked Michelangelo to paint ceiling • Used Old Testament as prophecy of Christ’s coming • Combines classical and Christian ideas, tension between spirit and flesh • Muscular energy • Confident colors
The New St. Peter’s • Last years devoted to architecture • Old basilica demolished and modernized • 150 years to complete • Greek Cross floor plan Michelangelo’s design seen only from the rear • Conflict between 12 architects and 22 popes • Limited funds in Vatican
An Age of Giants • Why such concentration of talent in Italy? • Cultural center of beauty and learning • Triumph of the human spirit