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Adolescents and Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Jonathan D. Klein, MD, MPH. Review evidence on adolescents and tobacco use Understand that addiction is rapid for many people, and that there is no “experimental” use of “safe” exposure

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Learning objectives l.jpg

Review evidence on adolescents and tobacco use

Understand that addiction is rapid for many people, and that there is no “experimental” use of “safe” exposure

Discuss prevention and cessation strategies that are effective with youth

Understand role of media in promoting tobacco to young people

Learning Objectives

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Healthy People 2010Ten Leading Health Indicators

1. Physical Activity

2. Overweight & Obesity

3. Tobacco Use

4. Substance Abuse

5. Responsible Sexual Behavior

6. Mental Health

7. Injury and Violence

8. Environmental Quality

9. Immunization

10. Access to Health Care

Tobacco l.jpg

  • Declining rates in US - now leveling off – rates rising in much of the world

  • Challenge of complacency

  • Continued marketing/targeting of youth by industry

  • Community and clinical interventions needed

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Current Tobacco Use

  • Almost 1 billion men smoke cigarettes

    • 35% developed countries

    • 50% developing countries

  • 250 million women smoke cigarettes

    • 22% developed countries

    • 9% developing countries

  • Every day, 80-100,000 young people around the world become addicted to tobacco

  • 1 in 3 will die from a tobacco related disease

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Youth Tobacco Prevelance


  • 4.2% currently smoke

    • Boys 5.9%

    • Girls 1.8%

  • 11.9% use other tobacco products

    • Boys 14.3%

    • Girls 8.5%


  • 13% currently smoke

    • Boys 12.1%

    • Girls 13.9%

  • 10.6% use other tobacco products

    • Boys 14.0%

    • Girls 7.4%

Global Youth Tobacco Surveillance, 2000—2007

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Why do Youth Use Tobacco?

  • Social influences

    • Friends

    • Parents

      • access to cigarettes

      • attitude toward smoking

    • Media

  • Personality

    • Sensation seeking

    • Rebelliousness

    • Poor school performance

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Why do Youth Use Tobacco?

  • Attitudinal Factors

    • Intentions regarding future smoking

    • Susceptibility

    • Positive utilities-what might be gained by smoking

  • Availability of cigarettes

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Tobacco Marketing

  • Annual spending to promote tobacco use = more than half the NIH budget

  • Advertising

    • Targeted to youth

  • Non-advertising commercial speech

    • Product placement

    • Clothing, gear

    • Sponsorships, broadcast media

    • Candy look-alike products

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Tobacco and Children

  • 25 - 40% (~15 million) US children live with one or more smokers

  • Movie imagery, social marketing, and causal use leads to addictionof many youth

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Secondhand Tobacco Smoke


  • 26.6% exposed to SHS at home

  • 40.3% exposed to SHS in public places


  • 41.1% exposed to SHS at home

  • 54.9% exposed to SHS in public places

Global Youth Tobacco Surveillance, 2000—2007

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Initiation and Addiction

  • Exposure to tobacco promotion contributes to initiation of tobacco use

  • Dose-response relationship

    • Greater exposure results in greater risk

  • Nicotine addiction

    • Characterized by tolerance, craving, withdrawal symptoms, & loss of control

    • 1st symptoms of dependence can appear with days or weeks of intermittent tobacco use

Sargent, J, et al. Arch Dis Ch Adol. 2007

DiFranza, J, Sci Am. 2008

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Changing Evidence About Nicotine Dependence

  • Signs of nicotine dependence often start within two months after onset of smoking

  • The median frequency of use at the onset of symptoms was 2 cigarettes, one day per week

  • 2/3 of teens report loss of autonomy over tobacco prior to the onset of daily smoking

    DiFranza JR. et al. Tobacco Control, 2002 .

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Unsafe Alternatives

  • Cigars: 14% past month use in US

  • Hookahs: water pipes involving the burning of tobacco mixed with sweetened flavors

  • Bidis: unfiltered flavored cigarettes

    • higher levels of nicotine

    • Marketed as “herbal”; usually less expensive

  • Kreteks: Clove cigarettes containing 60 – 70% tobacco

  • Smokeless tobacco: chewing tobacco, snuff, dip

    These are all tobacco products containing nicotine and carry similar risks to regular cigarettes

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Evidence based best practices

  • Increase price/taxation of tobacco

  • Smoking bans and restrictions

  • Counseling – reframe expectations of success

    • 5A’s - Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist and Arrage

    • No Smoking Rules - smokefree homes and cars

  • Availability of treatment for addiction

    • Reduced cost for pharmacotherapy treatment

    • Provider reminder systems

    • Telephone/web counseling and support

  • Mass media counter-marketing campaigns

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Adolescent and Adult Smokers

  • Know they are addicted and want to quit

  • Many have tried to quit without success

  • Younger smokers less likely to think there are resources to help

  • Many clinicians feel unprepared to help

  • With advice, most parents say they would be able to set strict smoking policies

Camenga, D. J Adol Health, 2006

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  • Confidentiality

  • Ask each time

  • Repeated brief messages

  • Assess motivation to change

  • Reinforce and follow-up

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5 A’s Counseling

  • Ask - If patient smokes

    - About Secondhand smoke

  • Advise - Every smoker to quit - Strict no smoking rules in all places children spend time

  • Assess - Readiness to quit

  • Assist - In quitting and finding services

  • Arrange - For cessation services and follow up

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  • Goal:

    • Prevent onset and promote cessation

  • Anticipate:

    • School performance

    • Overestimating prevalence

    • Poor coping resources

    • Peer influence

    • Smokeless tobacco

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Adolescent intervention

  • Ask

    • About friend’s use

    • About patterns of use

    • About school programs

    • Reassure about confidentiality

  • Assess - motivation & readiness

  • Advise

    • To quit for short term reasons

      • Athletic capacity

      • Cost, smell, etc.

    • Reinforce non-use

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Adolescent intervention

  • Assist

    • Set quit dates

    • Provide self-help materials

    • Encourage problem-solving, refusal skills

    • Encourage activities incompatible with tobacco

    • Consider pharmacology

  • Arrange:

    • 1-2 week follow-up after quit attempts

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Public Health Service Guideline

  • Anticipate

  • Ask - if smokes

  • Assess - readiness to quit

  • Advise - to quit

  • Assist - in quitting & finding services

  • Arrange - for cessation services

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Adolescent oriented office materials

  • Self-help handouts

    • Targeted to adolescents and to stages of change/motivation

  • Trigger questionnaires

  • Internet resources

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    Interventions and quitting?

    • Cessation among adolescent smokers is half of the adult rate (approx. 4%/yr)

    • Smokers aged 16 – 24 yrs rely more on unassisted methods rather than on effective methods recommended by PHS guidelines

    • 2 year success with adolescents referred to an intensive expert counseling ‘system’ after brief primary care advice (OR=2.43)

    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006

    Hollis et al.Pediatrics, 2005

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    Changing Evidence: Youth and Nicotine

    • Adolescents are more likely to become addicted than adults

    • Signs of nicotine dependence often start within two months after onset of smoking and before adolescent are daily users

    • Quitting is harder for teens but still possible; adolescents more likely to choose less effective methods for quitting

    DiFranza, J, Sci Am. 2008

    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006

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    What Can Pediatricians and OtherChild Health Advocates Do?

    • Ask all parents about smoking

    • Educate parents about SHTS

    • Offer treatment or referral (quitline or local system)

    • Advocate for smoke free areas

    • Advocate for tobacco control

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    Best available evidence - Responses to Patient Who Smokes

    • Unacceptable: “I don’t have time.”

    • Acceptable

      • Refer to a quitline

      • Establish systems in office and hospital

      • Become a cessation expert

    • Ask, Advise, Refer

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    International tobacco issues

    • MPOWER Initiative (WHO) goals

      • Raise taxes

      • Outlaw public smoking

      • Outlaw advertising to children

      • Fund antismoking advertising campaigns

      • Offer NRT and cessation assistance

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    Adolescent health care utilization

    • Access to care - requires systems and services that meet adolescents’ needs

      • Confidentiality

      • Reproductive health, mental health services

    • “Medical Home” = a regular source of care

    • Content of care available or delivered is not always best practice

    AAP Committee on Adolescence. Pediatrics, 2008

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    Missed opportunities for adolescent prevention

    • Most have source of care and have made visits

    • Nearly half had not spoken with MD privately

    • Many had missed needed care

    • Many were too embarrassed to discuss topics with MDs

    • Fear of disclosure is reason for 35% of missed care

    • Much of desired content is not discussed

    Klein, JD. J Adol Health, 1999

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    AAP Bright Futures Guidelines

    Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children, and Adolescents, 3rd Edition

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    Systematic approaches improve preventive service practices

    • Decision tools

      • Trigger questionnaires

      • Chart forms

    • Information systems

    • Patient self-care

      • Effective counseling techniques

      • Patient education resources

    • Community resources


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    Policy - School curriculum

    • At least 5 session/year over 2 years

    • Should include

      • Social influences

      • Short term health effects

      • Refusal skills

    • NOT self-esteem or delay based

    • Be aware of dilution and confusion strategies by tobacco interests

    • School policies should reinforce goals

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    Community and public health

    • Make tobacco control for children and youth a priority

      • Include secondhand smoke

    • Age of sale restrictions and enforcement

    • Advertising limitations

    • Smokefree Movies

    • Public smoke exposure reduction

    • Do not allow preemptive efforts by tobacco industry

    • Reduce social acceptability of smoking

    AAP Tobacco Policy, forthcoming, 2009

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    Movies & Adolescents

    • Adolescents whose favorite movie stars smoke on-screen are more likely to become smokers

    • Smoking seen in > 75% of youth rated films

    • Non-smoking teens are 16 times more likely to develop positive feelings towards smoking if they see their favorite stars smoking on screen

    Exposure to tobacco use in movies and smoking among 5th 8th grader l.jpg
    Exposure to Tobacco Use in Movies and Smoking Among 5th-8th grader

    8th Grade

    7th Grade

    6th Grade

    5th Grade

    Adapted from Sargent, DiFranza, 2003

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    Smoke Free Movies grader

    • Rate new smoking movies "R"

    • Certify no pay-offs

    • Require strong anti-smoking ads

    • Stop identifying tobacco brands

      Guidelines are endorsed by AAP and many other organizations

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    Conclusions grader

    • Many missed opportunities for SHTS prevention in primary care

    • With advice, many parents would set smoking rules

    • There is no safe “experimental” smoking

    • Policies are needed to protect adolescents

    • Tobacco control efforts should include interventions in child health care for secondhand smoke and tobacco control for all household members