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Plant Diversity I. Plant Kingdom is Monophyletic: one common ancestor. Primary Products: main metabolic pathways Amino acid synthesis Production of cellulose Products needed for growth and development. Secondary Products: products for survival but not central metabolic needs Protection

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Plant Kingdom is Monophyletic: one common ancestor

  • Primary Products: main metabolic pathways
      • Amino acid synthesis
      • Production of cellulose
      • Products needed for growth and development
  • Secondary Products: products for survival but not central
  • metabolic needs
      • Protection
      • Waxes of cuticle
      • Lignin; hardens cell walls of woody tissue
      • Sporopollenin: polymer resistant to harsh environments
embryophytes key adaptation for success on land
EmbryophytesKey adaptation for success on land

Gametangia: organ of sterile cells protecting gametes

egg is fertilized in female gametangia

  • Alternating
  • Generations
  • Gametophyte (1n)
  • Sporophyte (2n)

Heteromorphic

plant phylogeny
Plant Phylogeny

Gametangia/sporopollenin

Flowering Plants

Seed Develops

Vascular Tissues

classification
Classification

Division = Phylum

Charophytes: green algae closely related to plants

  • Homologies
    • Chloroplasts: chlorophyll b and beta-carotene match
    • Biochemical: cellulose, peroxisomes
    • Mitosis.Meiosis: similar in both.
    • Sperm ultrastructure:
    • Genetic Relationship: nuclear genes and ribosomal RNA
delayed mitosis
Delayed Mitosis

Charophytes : modern ones do not have alterations of generations. Most release gametes in water for fertilization to take place.

Clues looked at in Coleochaete: Retains the eggs, after fertilization

bryophytes
Bryophytes
  • First moved to land (gametangia development)
      • Male sperm = antheridium
      • Female egg = archegonium
  • Need water to reproduce
  • No vascular tissue to carry water
  • Lack Lignin fortified tissue for support
  • Gametophyte prominent generation
  • Division Bryophyta: mosses
  • Division Hepatophyta: Liverworts
  • Division Anthocerphyta: Hornworts
origin of vascular plants
Origin of Vascular Plants
  • Two Systems:
    • Subterranean Root System
    • Aerial Shoot System
  • Two Conducting Tissues
    • Xylem: tube shape cells carry water and mineral from roots
    • Phloem: living tissue w/ food conducting cells, distribute
    • sugars, a.a, organic nutrients.
seedless vascular plants
Seedless Vascular Plants
  • Sporophyte in dominant, larger, and more complex.
  • Homosporous: plant producing single type of spore
  • Heterosporous: produces two type of spores (water ferns only)
    • Megaspore: develop into female gametophytes bearing
    • archegonia
    • Microspores: develop into male gametophytes with
    • antheridia