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Detail of Squanto teaching Pilgrims how to grow corn. PowerPoint Presentation
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Detail of Squanto teaching Pilgrims how to grow corn. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Detail of Squanto teaching Pilgrims how to grow corn.

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  1. The English Establish 13 Colonies, 1585–1732 The English colonies developed in North America, and colonists learned from and conflicted with Native Americans. Detail of Squanto teaching Pilgrims how to grow corn. NEXT

  2. The English Establish 13 Colonies, 1585–1732 SECTION 1 Early Colonies Have Mixed Success SECTION 2 New England Colonies SECTION 3 Founding the Middle and Southern Colonies NEXT

  3. Section 1 Early Colonies Have Mixed Success Two early English colonies failed, but Jamestown survived—partly through individual effort and hard work. NEXT

  4. SECTION 1 Early Colonies Have Mixed Success The English Plan Colonies • After defeat of Spanish Armada, England focuses on colonizing Americas • English geographer Richard Hakluyt urges England to start a colony - colonies would provide market for English exports - colonies would serve as source of raw materials - colonies would establish Protestant faith in Americas Continued . . . NEXT

  5. SECTION 1 continuedThe English Plan Colonies • English colonists go to Americas to: - seek economic opportunity - escape religious persecution NEXT

  6. SECTION 1 Two Early Colonies Fail • Sir Walter Raleigh begins colony on Roanoke Island, Virginia (1585) • Native Americans stop colonists’ food supply; survivors return to England • 2nd Roanoke colony begins (1587); colonists disappear; reason unknown • Sagadahoc colony begins (1607); face hardships, return to England Map NEXT

  7. SECTION 1 Financing a Colony • Sir Walter Raleigh is only person who finances colony at Roanoke Image • When colony fails, he loses his investment • To raise money for colonies, turn to the joint-stock company • Company is backed by investors • Each investor receives pieces of company ownership • Investors split profits, divide losses Continued . . . NEXT

  8. SECTION 1 continuedFinancing a Colony • Organize Virginia Company of London, Virginia Company of Plymouth • Given charter—government contract; holder has right to establish colony NEXT

  9. SECTION 1 Jamestown Is Founded in 1607 • Virginia Company of London finances expedition to Chesapeake Bay • Expedition starts Jamestownsettlement • Settlers face disease, harsh weather • Settlers incorrectly told they would find gold, waste time searching NEXT

  10. SECTION 1 Jamestown Grows • By January 1608, only 38 colonists remain alive •JohnSmith establishes colonial discipline, trade with Powhatan tribe • 800 more settlers arrive (1609), face hardships, only 60 survive • More settlers arrive (1610); governor Lord De La Warr imposes discipline • Colonists learn to grow tobacco; product becomes popular in England • Colonists become employees of Virginia Company, want share of profits Continued . . . NEXT

  11. SECTION 1 continued Jamestown Grows • Virginia Company lets settlers own land •Population of Virginia jumps from about 600 (1619) to over 2,000 (1621) • Indentured servants arrive: - they sell their labor to person who pays their passage - after a few years, they are free to farm or take up a trade • Colonists annoyed with strict rule of governor, want more local control • Set up House of Burgesses—first representative assembly in American colonies Image NEXT

  12. SECTION 1 Conflicts with the Powhatan • As more settlers take land, relations with Powhatan tribe grow worse •To improve relations, John Rolfe marries chief’s daughter, Pocahontas • Uneasy peace; colonists learn to grow corn, catch fish from Powhatan • Expanding plantations cause Powhatan to kill many settlers (1622) NEXT

  13. SECTION 1 Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 • By 1670s, one-fourth of white men in English colonies are indentured servants •They resent wealthy landowners • Nathaniel Bacon accuses Governor William Berkeley of favoring wealthy • Demands Berkeley to approve war against Native Americans to seize land • Berkeley’s refusal sparks Bacon’s Rebellion(1676) Image Continued . . . NEXT

  14. SECTION 1 continued Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676 • Bacon, followers take control of House of Burgesses; burn Jamestown •Bacon dies; Berkeley hangs Bacon’s followers • House of Burgesses pass laws: - prevent governor from taking so much power NEXT

  15. Section 2 New England Colonies Religion influenced the settlement and government of the New England colonies. NEXT

  16. SECTION 2 New England Colonies The Voyage of the Mayflower • Pilgrims—Separatist religious group; separate from Church of England • To escape persecution, they sail to Americas • Pilgrims land at Plymouth, Massachusetts (1620) Image • To establish order they sign the Mayflower Compact: - vow to obey laws agreed upon for the good of the colony - establishes idea of self-government, majority rule Image NEXT

  17. SECTION 2 The Pilgrims Found Plymouth • Pilgrims endure hardships; half of group dies by spring •Make friends with Squanto, a Pawtuxet • Squanto sets up peace treaty between Pilgrims and Native Americans • Squanto shows Pilgrims how to plant, hunt, fish • Pilgrims trade with Native Americans, send lumber to England for profit • Pilgrims, Native Americans celebrate harvest—first Thanksgiving Image NEXT

  18. SECTION 2 The Puritans Come to Massachusetts Bay • Puritans—religious group, wants to reform Church of England • To escape persecution, many Puritans sail to Americas (1630—1640) • This movement of Puritans is known as the Great Migration • 1,000 Puritans arrive at Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) • They are well prepared; do not starve • First governor John Winthrop sets up a commonwealth NEXT

  19. SECTION 2 The New England Way • Basic unit of the commonwealth is congregation: - group of people who belong to same church - each congregation sets up own town - each town has a form of self-government Image • Puritans follow the “New England Way”: - emphasizes duty, godliness, hard work, honesty - work ethic helps growth of New England colonies - requires that all children learn to read Continued . . . NEXT

  20. SECTION 2 continued The New England Way • Puritan congregations set up new colonies • Thomas Hooker adopts Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639): - extends voting rights to non-church members - limits power of governor - expands idea of representative government • Portsmouth is first European settlement in New Hampshire Map NEXT

  21. SECTION 2 Challenges to Puritan Leaders • Massachusetts minister Roger Williamsopposes “New England Way” • Forced to leave colony, he founds colony of Rhode Island (1636) • This colony guarantees religious freedom, separation of church/state • Anne Hutchinson believes person can worship without church, Bible • Quakers believe person can know God through “inner light” • Also believe in treating Native Americans fairly, persecuted for this NEXT

  22. SECTION 2 King Philip’s War • Growing tensions over land between colonists, Native Americans • Europeans and Native Americans define land ownership differently: - to Europeans, land can be owned by individuals - to Native Americans, land belongs to everyone Continued . . . NEXT

  23. SECTION 2 continued King Philip’s War • King Philip’s War (1675—1676)—war between Puritans, Native Americans Chart • Native Americans lose war, are forced to become laborers • English settlers expand farther into Native American lands NEXT

  24. SECTION 2 The Salem Witchcraft Trials • By late 1600s, societal changes lead to fear, suspicion in New England • Pretending to be bewitched, girls falsely accuse others of witchcraft • Witch-hunts begin (1692); more than 100 people are arrested, tried • 20 found guilty and put to death • Panic short-lived; experience shows how society can make scapegoats NEXT

  25. Section 3 Founding the Middle and Southern Colonies The founding of the Middle and Southern colonies provided settlers with many economic opportunities. NEXT

  26. SECTION 3 Founding the Middle and Southern Colonies The Middle Colonies • Middle colonies—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware • Are located between New England and Chesapeake region • Religious freedom attracts many groups • Conditions favorable for shipping, commerce, farming, livestock Image NEXT

  27. SECTION 3 New Netherland Becomes New York • Dutch settlers found New Netherland (1624) • Includes Hudson River valley, Long Island, land along Delaware River • Each patroonbrings 50 settlers; receives land grant, special privileges • Many different settlers arrive - 23 Jews (1654) - Africans come as slaves and indentured servants - Puritans Continued . . . NEXT

  28. SECTION 3 continuedNew Netherland Becomes New York • New Netherland’s governor Peter Stuyvesant attacks New Sweden • Wants to add land to New Netherland; New Sweden surrenders (1655) • England’s king wants Duke of York to drive Dutch out of New Netherland - Dutch colonies threaten England’s trade - Dutch colonies geographically divide the English colonies • New Netherland surrenders to English (1664) • Becomes proprietary colony—Duke of York is proprietor, or owner NEXT

  29. SECTION 3 New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware • Duke of York gives part of claim, province of New Jersey, to friends • Promise settlers religious freedom, land grants, representative assembly • American landowner William Pennjoins religious group—Quakers • To repay debts, English king gives large piece of land to Penn (1681) Continued . . . NEXT

  30. SECTION 3 continuedNew Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware • William Penn uses land to create colony of Pennsylvania for Quakers: - welcomes different religious, ethnic groups - treats Native Americans fairly - becomes wealthy colony Image • Southern counties of Pennsylvania form own colony of Delaware NEXT

  31. SECTION 3 The Southern Colonies • Southern colonies—Maryland, the Carolinas, Georgia Map • West border is Appalachian Mountains; east border is Atlantic Ocean • Conditions good for warm-weather crops: tobacco, rice, indigo NEXT

  32. SECTION 3 Maryland and the Carolinas • Lord Baltimore establishes Maryland for Roman Catholics (1632) • Maryland passes Toleration Act—promises freedom of religion • Maryland’s economy is based on tobacco Image • Colony of Carolina (1663) grows rice, indigo; use enslaved African labor • Sell Native Americans into slavery; conflicts between colonists, tribes Continued . . . NEXT

  33. SECTION 3 continued Maryland and the Carolinas • Colonists overthrow Carolina’s proprietary rule • Carolina becomes royal colony—rule by king-appointed governor • Colony divides into North Carolina and South Carolina NEXT

  34. SECTION 3 Georgia • James Oglethorpe founds Georgia as refuge for debtors (1732) • During English-Spanish war, Spain tries to oust English colonists, but fails • English, Germans, Swiss, Scottish settle Georgia; all religions welcome • Oglethorpe’s strict rules upset colonists • In response, king makes Georgia a royal colony in 1752 NEXT

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