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  • Uploaded on The Great Society. Angela Brown Chapter 19 Section 2. Learning Targets:. Describe Johnson’s path to the White House. List some of the programs and effects of Johnson’s Great Society.

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learning targets
Learning Targets:
  • Describe Johnson’s path to the White House.
  • List some of the programs and effects of Johnson’s Great Society.
  • Identify some of the landmark cases handed down by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren.
lbj s path to the white house
LBJ’s Path to the White House
  • House of Representatives in 1937 – New Deal Democrat from Texas
  • 1948 Senate by 87 votes
  • Johnson became famous for ability to work within the political system to accomplish his goals.
  • Bid for democratic nomination failed in 1960
  • Agreed to vice-presidential position but soon frustrated by powerlessness of office – missed Congress
building the great society
Building the Great Society
  • Swift passage of Kennedy’s Civil Rights and tax bills followed the assassination.
  • Johnson branched out; he sought laws to aid public education, provide medical care for elderly and eliminate poverty.
  • 1964 called goals the Great Society
the election of 1964
The Election of 1964
  • Landslide victory for Johnson over Barry Goldwater.
  • (486 to 52 electoral votes – 61% of popular vote)
  • Democrats established a majority in both houses.
barry goldwater
Barry Goldwater
  • Goldwater’s conservative views seemed radical to Americans.
  • He opposed Civil Rights legislation and believed military commanders should be allowed to use nuclear bombs as they saw fit in battle.
the tax cut
The Tax Cut
  • Believed a budget deficit could be used to help the economy
  • Johnson agreed to cut government spending to get tax cut through Congress.
  • GNP rose 7.1% in 1964; 8.1 % in 1865; 9.5% in 1966 – the deficit shrank
  • The revival of prosperity generated new tax revenues – unemployment fell, and inflation remained in check
the war on poverty
The War on Poverty
  • The Economic Opportunity Act of 1954 was created to combat illiteracy, unemployment, and inadequate public services - $950 million.
  • Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) sent volunteers to help in poor communities.
aid to education
Aid to Education
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act provided aid to states based on # of children from low-income homes.
  • ($1.3 billion to both public and private schools)
  • 1965 Head Start Programwas created to prepare economically disadvantaged preschoolers for school.
  • Today serves 11 million children under age five.
medicare and medicaid
Medicare and Medicaid
  • Medicare provided hospital and low-cost medical insurance for most American age 65 and older.
  • Medicaid provided low-cost health insurance for poor Americans of any age.
  • Most important Social Welfare legislation since the passage of Social Security Act in 1935
  • Demonstrated government commitment to provide help to those Americans who needed it.
immigration reform
Immigration Reform
  • Immigration Act of 1965 eliminated quotas for individual countries and replaced them with more flexible limits
  • 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere
  • 120,000 from Western Hemisphere
Family members of U.S. citizens exempt from quotas, as were political refugees.
  • 20,000 maximum from any one country
  • 1960’s 350,000 immigrants per year; 1970’s 400,000
earl warren
Earl Warren
  • Law degree University of California at Berkley
  • District attorney, attorney General of California, Governor, Republican Vice-Presidential candidate in 1948
  • Appointed Chief Justice of U.S. by President Eisenhower in 1953 served until retirement in 1969
earl warren1
Earl Warren

Overturned many old laws to establish new legal precedents
  • (Brown v Board of Education, Connecticut law against birth control, prayer in public schools unconstitutional)
criminal procedure
Criminal Procedure
  • Concerned to safeguard constitutional rights of individuals against power of state
  • 1961 Mapp v Ohio – evidence seized illegally could not be used in a trial
  • 1963 Gideon v. Wainwright – suspects in criminal cases who could not afford attorney were given free legal aid

1964 Escobedo v Ilinois – accused must be given access to an attorney while being questioned
  • 1966 Miranda v Arizona – suspect must be warned of rights before being questioned = Miranda Rule
congressional reapportionment
Congressional Reapportionment
  • Apportionment – distribution of a legislative body’s seats among electoral district’s
  • Most state governments had not redistributed districts to reflect population shifts.
  • Rural citizens were over-represented and urban citizens were under-represented.
  • 1962 Baker v Carr – declared congressional districts had to be apportioned “one person, one vote”.

Today each of the 435 seats in the House represents an average of 665,000 persons
  • 1964 Reynolds v Sims – not based on “one person, one vote” violated equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment
  • Many decisions were controversial.
  • People believed court had gone to far and hoped for more conservative judges.
effects of the great society
Effects of the Great Society
  • At first very popular – New Programs raised expectations
  • Disillusionment followed when not all demands could be met.
  • Complained too many tax dollars spent on poor
  • Too much authority in hands of federal government
Number of people living in poverty cut in half during the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Some complained not enough money spent by government.
exit slip
Exit Slip:
  • A major part of Johnson’s Great Society was….
  • Several of the decisions of the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren focused on…
  • Critics of the Great Society complained that it…