Chapter 15: Clauses 15a. What is a clause? 15b. Independent Clauses 15c. Subordinate Clauses 15d. Adjective Clause 15e. Adverb Clause 15f. Noun Clause 15g. Types of Sentences Property of Minooka Community High School
15a. What is a clause? • A word group that contains a verb and its subject; it’s also used as a sentence or as part of a sentence • Every clause has a subject and a verb-not all are complete thoughts. • Complete thoughts= independent clauses • Incomplete thoughts= subordinate clauses
15b. Independent Clause • (Main clause) expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence • EX: The outfielders missed the fly ball. • Can be a single sentence, combined with a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS), combined with a semicolon, or combined with a conjunctive adverb.
15c. Subordinate Clauses • (Dependent) does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence • EX: whom we spoke to yesterday • EX: because no students have applied for them • EX: Some scholarships are still available because no students have applied for them.
Complements & Modifiers in Subordinate Clauses • *A subordinate clause may contain complements and modifiers. • EX: since she told us the truth (us=I.O. & truth=D.O.) • EX: when I am busy (predicate adjective) • EX: after he had cooked for us (prep. phrase) • EX: that he recently painted (that=D.O. & recently=adverb) • EX: who they were (predicate nominative)
15d. Adjective Clause • A subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun • EX: I am now reading this book, which is a historical novel about the Irish revolt of 1798. • EX: A photograph of those who had participated in the school’s Earth Day celebration. • *Tells what kind or which one and generally follows the word or words it modifies
15e. Adverb Clause • Tells how, when, where, why, to what extent, or under what circumstances • EX: Donna sounds as if she has caught a cold. • EX: Before we left, we lowered the blinds. • EX: You will see our house where the road turns right. • EX: Will you move so that I can see?
Subordinating Conjunctions An adverb clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction—a word that shows the relationship between the adverb clause and the word(s) it modifies.
15f. Noun Clause A subordinate clause that is used as a noun (can be used as a Sub., P.N., D.O., I.O, or O.P.)
15g. Sentence Structure • Can be classified as: simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex • 1. Simple:contains 1 independent clause and no subordinate clauses. • EX: Cora and Kareem bought supplies at the mall.
Sentence Structure • 2. Compound: contains 2+ independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. • EX: Cora hung colorful streamers from the ceiling, and Kareem set party favors on the tables. • 3. Complex: contains 1 independent clause and at least 1 subordinate clause. • EX: When they had finished their work, they complimented each other on the results.
Sentence Structure • 4. Compound-complex: contains 2+ independent clauses & at least 1 subordinate clause. • EX: Cora waited for just the right moment to ask Kareem to the banquet, and he promptly accepted her invitation, adding that he had been planning to ask her.