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ITC358 ICT Management and Information Security. Chapter 5 Developing the Security Program. We trained hard… but every time we formed up teams we would be reorganised. I was to learn that we meet any new situation by reorganising. And a wonderful method it can be for creating the

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itc358 ict management and information security

ITC358ICT Management and Information Security

Chapter 5

Developing the Security Program

We trained hard… but every time we formed up teams we would be reorganised. I was to learn

that we meet any new situation by reorganising. And a wonderful method it can be for creating the

illusion of progress while producing confusion, inefficiency, and demoralisation. – Petronius Arbiter, Roman Writer and Satirist, 210 B.C.

objectives
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this material you should be able to:
    • Explain the organisational approaches to information security
    • List and describe the functional components of an information security program
    • Determine how to planand staff an organisation’s information security program based on its size
objectives cont d
Objectives (cont’d.)
  • Upon completion of this material you should be able to: (cont’d.)
    • Evaluate the internal and external factors that influence the activities and organisation of an information security program
    • List and describe the typical job titles and functions performed in the information security program
objectives cont d1
Objectives (cont’d.)
  • Upon completion of this material you should be able to: (cont’d.)
    • Describe the components of a security education, training, and awareness program and explain how organisations create and manage these programs
introduction
Introduction
  • Some organisations use security program to describe the entire set of personnel, plans, policies, and initiatives related to information security
    • The term “information security program” is used here to describe the structure and organisationof the effort that contains risks to the information assets of the organisation
organising for security
Organising for Security
  • Variables involved in structuring an information security program
    • Organisational culture
    • Size
    • Security personnel budget
    • Security capital budget
  • As organisations increase in size:
    • Their security departments are not keeping up with increasingly complex organisational infrastructures
organising for security cont d
Organising for Security (cont’d.)
  • Information security departments tend to form internal groups
    • To meet long-term challenges and handle day-to-day security operations
  • Functions are likely to be split into groups
  • Smaller organisations typically create fewer groups
    • Perhaps having only one general group of specialists
organising for security cont d1
Organising for Security (cont’d.)
  • Very large organisations
    • More than 10,000 computers
    • Security budgets often grow faster than IT budgets
    • Even with a large budgets, the average amount spent on security per user is still smaller than any other type of organisation
      • Small organisations spend more than $5,000 per user on security; very large organisations spend about 1/18th of that, roughly $300 per user
organising for security cont d2
Organising for Security (cont’d.)
  • Very large organisations (cont’d.)
    • Does a better job in the policy and resource management areas
    • Only 1/3 of organisations handled incidents according to an IR plan
  • Large organisations
    • Have 1,000 to 10,000 computers
    • Security approach has often matured, integrating planning and policy into the organisation’s culture
organising for security cont d3
Organising for Security (cont’d.)
  • Large organisations (cont’d.)
    • Do not always put large amounts of resources into security
      • Considering the vast numbers of computers and users often involved
    • They tend to spend proportionally less on security
security in large organisations
Security in Large Organisations
  • One approach separates functions into four areas:
    • Functions performed by non-technology business units outside of IT
    • Functions performed by IT groups outside of information security area
    • Functions performed within information security department as customer service
    • Functions performed within the information security department as compliance
security in large organisations cont d
Security in Large Organisations (cont’d.)
  • The CISO has responsibility for information security functions
    • Should be adequately performed somewhere within the organisation
  • The deployment of full-time security personnel depends on:
    • Sensitivity of the information to be protected
    • Industry regulations
    • General profitability
security in large organisations cont d1
Security in Large Organisations (cont’d.)
  • The more money the company can dedicate to its personnel budget
    • The more likely it is to maintain a large information security staff
security in large organisations cont d2
Security in Large Organisations (cont’d.)

Figure 5-1 Example of information security staffing in a large organisation

security in large organisations cont d3
Security in Large Organisations (cont’d.)

Figure 5-2 Example of information security staffing in a very large organisation

security in medium sized organisations
Security in Medium-Sized Organisations
  • Medium-sized organisations
    • Have between 100 and 1000 computers
    • Have a smaller total budget
    • Have same sized security staff as the small organisation, but a larger need
    • Must rely on help from IT staff for plans and practices
    • Ability to set policy, handle incidents, and effectively allocate resources is worse than any other size
security in medium sized organisations cont d
Security in Medium-Sized Organisations (cont’d.)
  • Medium-sized organisations (cont’d.)
    • May be large enough to implement a multi-tiered approach to security
      • With fewer dedicated groups and more functions assigned to each group
    • Tend to ignore some security functions
security in medium sized organisations cont d1
Security in Medium-Sized Organisations (cont’d.)

Figure 5-3 Example of information security staffing in a medium-sized organisation

security in small organisations
Security in Small Organisations
  • Small organisations
    • Have between 10 and 100 computers
    • Have a simple, centralised IT organisational model
    • Spend disproportionately more on security
    • Information security is often the responsibility of a single security administrator
    • Have little in the way of formal policy, planning, or security measures
security in small organisations cont d
Security in Small Organisations (cont’d.)
  • Small organisations (cont’d.)
    • Commonly outsource their Web presence or electronic commerce operations
    • Security training and awareness is commonly conducted on a 1-on-1 basis
    • Policies (when they exist) are often issue-specific
    • Formal planning is often part of IT planning
    • Threats from insiders are less likely
      • Every employee knows every other employee
security in small organisations cont d1
Security in Small Organisations (cont’d.)

Figure 5-4 Example of information security staffing in a smaller organisation

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

placing information security within an organisation
Placing Information Security Within An Organisation
  • In large organisations
    • InfoSec is often located within the information technology department
      • Headed by the CISO who reports directly to the top computing executive, or CIO
  • An InfoSec program is sometimes at odds with the goals and objectives of the IT department as a whole
placing information security within an organisation cont d
Placing Information Security Within An Organisation (cont’d.)
  • Because the goals and objectives of the CIO and the CISO may come in conflict
    • It is not difficult to understand the current movement to separate information security from the IT division
    • The challenge is to design a reporting structure for the InfoSec program that balances the needs of each of the communities of interest
placing information security within an organisation cont d1
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)

Source: From Information Security Roles and

Responsibilities Made Easy, used with permission.

Figure 5-5 Wood’s Option 1: Information security reports to information technology department

placing information security within an organisation cont d2
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)

Source: From Information Security Roles and

Responsibilities Made Easy, used with permission.

Figure 5-6 Wood’s Option 2: Information security reports to broadly defined security department

placing information security within an organisation cont d3
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)

Source: From Information Security Roles and

Responsibilities Made Easy, used with permission.

Figure 5-7 Wood’s Option 3: Information security reports to administrative services department

placing information security within an organisation cont d4
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)

Source: From Information Security Roles and

Responsibilities Made Easy, used with permission.

Figure 5-8 Wood’s Option 4: Information security reports to insurance and risk management department

placing information security within an organisation cont d5
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)

Figure 5-9 Wood’s Option 5: Information security reports to strategy and planning department

Source: From Information Security Roles and

Responsibilities Made Easy, used with permission.

placing information security within an organisation cont d6
Placing Information Security Within an Organisation (cont’d.)
  • Other options
    • Option 6: Legal
    • Option 7: Internal audit
    • Option 8: Help desk
    • Option 9: Accounting and finance through IT
    • Option 10: Human resources
    • Option 11: Facilities management
    • Option 12: Operations
components of the security program
Components of the Security Program
  • Organisation’s information security needs
    • Unique to the culture, size, and budget of the organisation
    • Determining what level the information security program operates on depends on the organisation’s strategic plan
      • Also the plan’s vision and mission statements
      • The CIO and CISO should use these two documents to formulate the mission statement for the information security program
information security roles and titles
Information Security Roles and Titles
  • Types of information security positions
    • Those that define
      • Provide the policies, guidelines, and standards
      • Do the consulting and the risk assessment
      • Develop the product and technical architectures
      • Senior people with a lot of broad knowledge, but often not a lot of depth
    • Those that build
      • The real “techies” who create and install security solutions
information security roles and titles cont d
Information Security Roles and Titles (cont’d.)
  • Types of information security positions (cont’d.)
    • Those that administer
      • Operate and administer the security tools and the security monitoring function
      • Continuously improve the processes
  • A typical organisation has a number of individuals with information security responsibilities
information security roles and titles cont d1
Information Security Roles and Titles (cont’d.)
  • While the titles used may be different, most of the job functions fit into one of the following:
    • Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) or Chief Security Officer (CSO)
    • Security managers
    • Security administrators and analysts
    • Security technicians
    • Security staff
information security roles and titles cont d2
Information Security Roles and Titles (cont’d.)

Figure 5-10 Information security roles

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

help desk personnel
Help Desk Personnel
  • Help desk
    • An important part of the information security team
    • Enhances the security team’s ability to identify potential problems
    • When a user calls the help desk with a complaint , the user’s problem may turn out to be related to a bigger problem, such as a hacker, denial-of-service attack, or a virus
help desk personnel cont d
Help Desk Personnel (cont’d.)
  • Help desk (cont’d.)
    • Because help desk technicians perform a specialised role in information security, they have a need for specialised training
implementing security education training and awareness programs
Implementing Security Education, Training, and Awareness Programs
  • SETA program
    • Designed to reduce accidental security breaches
    • Consists of three elements: security education, security training, and security awareness
  • Awareness, training, and education programs offer two major benefits:
    • Improving employee behavior
    • Enabling the organisation to hold employees accountable for their actions
implementing seta programs cont d
Implementing SETAPrograms (cont’d.)
  • Purpose of SETA is to enhance security:
    • By building in-depth knowledge, to design, implement, or operate security programs for organisations and systems
    • By developing skills and knowledge so that computer users can perform their jobs while using IT systems more securely
    • By improving awareness of the need to protect system resources
implementing seta programs cont d1
Implementing SETAPrograms (cont’d.)

Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology. An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook. SP 800-12. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-12/.

Table 5-3 Framework of security education, training and awareness

security education
Security Education
  • Employees within information security may be encouraged to seek a formal education
    • If not prepared by their background or experience
    • A number of institutions of higher learning, including colleges and universities, provide formal coursework in information security
security education cont d
Security Education (cont’d.)
  • A knowledge map
    • Can help potential students assess information security programs
    • Identifies the skills and knowledge clusters obtained by the program’s graduates
    • Creating the map can be difficult because many academics are unaware of the numerous subdisciplines within the field of information security
      • Each of which may have different knowledge requirements
security education cont d1
Security Education (cont’d.)

Figure 5-11 Information security knowledge map

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

security education cont d2
Security Education (cont’d.)
  • Depth of knowledge
    • Indicated by a level of mastery using an established taxonomy of learning objectives or a simple scale such as “understanding → accomplishment → proficiency → mastery.”
  • Because many institutions have no frame of reference for which skills and knowledge are required for a particular job area
    • They may refer to the certifications offered in that field
security education cont d3
Security Education (cont’d.)
  • Once the knowledge areas are identified, common knowledge areas are aggregated into teaching domains
    • From which individual courses can be created
  • Course design
    • Should enable a student to obtain the required knowledge and skills upon completion of the program
    • Identify the prerequisite knowledge for each class
security education cont d4
Security Education (cont’d.)

Figure 5-12 Technical course progression

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

security training
Security Training
  • Involves providing detailed information and hands-on instruction
    • To develop user skills to perform their duties securely
  • Management can either develop customised training or outsource
security training cont d
Security Training (cont’d.)
  • Customising training for users
    • By functional background
      • General user
      • Managerial user
      • Technical user
    • By skill level
      • Novice
      • Intermediate
      • Advanced
training techniques
Training Techniques
  • Using the wrong method
    • Can hinder the transfer of knowledge
      • Leading to unnecessary expense and frustrated, poorly trained employees
  • Good training programs
    • Take advantage of the latest learning technologies and best practices
training techniques cont d
Training Techniques (cont’d.)
  • Recent developments
    • Less use of centralised public courses and more on-site training
  • Training is often for one or a few individuals
    • Waiting until there is a large-enough group for a class can cost companies lost productivity
  • Other best practices
    • Increased use of short, task-oriented modules
      • Available during the normal work week
training techniques cont d1
Training Techniques (cont’d.)
  • Selection of the training delivery method
    • Not always based on the best outcome for the trainee
      • Often overriden by budget, scheduling, and needs of the organisation
  • Types of delivery methods
    • One-on-one
    • Formal class
    • Computer-based training (CBT)
training techniques cont d2
Training Techniques (cont’d.)
  • Types of delivery methods (cont’d.)
    • Distance learning/web seminars
    • User support group
    • On-the-job training
    • Self-study (non-computerised)
training techniques cont d3
Training Techniques (cont’d.)
  • Training methods
    • Use a local training program
    • Use a continuing education department
    • Use another external training agency
    • Hire a professional trainer, a consultant, or someone from an accredited institution to conduct on-site training
    • Organise and conduct training in-house using organisation’s own employees
implementing training
Implementing Training
  • Seven-step methodology generally applies:
    • Step 1: Identify program scope, goals, and objectives
    • Step 2: Identify training staff
    • Step 3: Identify target audiences
    • Step 4: Motivate management and employees
    • Step 5: Administer the program
    • Step 6: Maintain the program
    • Step 7: Evaluate the program
security awareness
Security Awareness
  • One of the least frequently implemented, but most effective security methods is the security awareness program
  • Security awareness programs:
    • Set the stage for training by changing organisational attitudes to realise the importance of security and the adverse consequences of its failure
    • Remind users of the procedures to be followed
security awareness cont d
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Best practices
    • Focus on people
    • Refrain from using technical jargon
    • Use every available venue
    • Define learning objectives, state them clearly, and provide sufficient detail and coverage
    • Keep things light
    • Don’t overload the users
    • Help users understand their roles in InfoSec
security awareness cont d1
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Best practices (cont’d.)
    • Take advantage of in-house communications media
    • Make the awareness program formal
      • Plan and document all actions
    • Provide good information early, rather than perfect information late
security awareness cont d2
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • The ten commandments of information security awareness training
    • Information security is a people, rather than a technical, issue
    • If you want them to understand, speak their language
    • If they cannot see it, they will not learn it
    • Make your point so that you can identify it and so can they.
    • Never lose your sense of humor
security awareness cont d3
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • The ten commandments of information security awareness training (cont’d.)
    • Make your point, support it, and conclude it
    • Always let the recipients know how the behaviourthat you request will affect them
    • Ride the tame horses
    • Formalise your training methodology
    • Always be timely, even if it means slipping schedules to include urgent information
security awareness cont d4
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Security awareness and security training are designed to modify any employee behaviourthat endangers the security of the organisation’s information
    • Security training and awareness activities can be undermined if management does not set a good example
security awareness cont d5
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Effective training and awareness programs make employees accountable for their actions
  • Dissemination and enforcement of policy become easier when training and awareness programs are in place
  • Demonstrating due care and due diligence can help indemnify the institution against lawsuits
security awareness cont d6
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Awareness can take on different forms for particular audiences
  • A security awareness program can use many methods to deliver its message
  • Recognise that people tend to practice a tuning out process (acclimation)
    • Awareness techniques should be creative and frequently changed
security awareness cont d7
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Many security awareness components are available at little or no cost
    • Others can be very expensive
  • Examples of security awareness components
    • Videos
    • Posters and banners
    • Lectures and conferences
    • Computer-based training
security awareness cont d8
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Examples of security awareness components (cont’d.)
    • Newsletters
    • Brochures and flyers
    • Trinkets (coffee cups, pens, pencils, T-shirts)
    • Bulletin boards
security awareness cont d9
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Security newsletter
    • A cost-effective way to disseminate security information
    • Newsletters can be in the form of hard copy, e-mail, or intranet
    • Topics can include threats to the organisation’s information assets, schedules for upcoming security classes, and the addition of new security personnel
security awareness cont d10
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Security newsletter (cont’d.)
    • The goal is to keep the idea of information security uppermost in users’ minds and to stimulate them to care about security
    • Newsletters might include:
      • Summaries of key policies
      • Summaries of key news articles
      • A calendar of security events, including training sessions, presentations, and other activities
      • Announcements relevant to information security
      • How-to’s
security awareness cont d11
Security Awareness (cont’d.)

Figure 5-13 SETA awareness components: Newsletters

security awareness cont d12
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Security poster series
    • A simple and inexpensive way to keep security on people’s minds
    • Professional posters can be quite expensive, so in-house development may be the best solution
    • Keys to a good poster series:
      • Varying the content and keeping posters updated
      • Keeping them simple, but visually interesting
      • Making the message clear
      • Providing information on reporting violations
security awareness cont d13
Security Awareness (cont’d.)

Figure 5-14 SETA awareness components: Posters

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

security awareness cont d14
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Trinket programs
    • Inexpensive on a per-unit basis
    • They can be expensive to distribute
  • Types of trinkets
    • Pens and pencils, mouse pads
    • Coffee mugs, plastic cups
    • Hats, T-shirts
  • The messages trinket programs impart will be lost unless reinforced by other means
security awareness cont d15
Security Awareness (cont’d.)

Figure 5-15 SETA awareness components: Trinkets

Source: Course Technology/Cengage Learning

security awareness cont d16
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Organisations can establish Web pages or sites dedicated to promoting information security awareness
    • The challenge lies in updating the messages frequently enough to keep them fresh
  • Tips on creating and maintaining an educational Web site
    • See what’s already out there
    • Plan ahead
security awareness cont d17
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Tips on creating and maintaining an educational Web site (cont’d.)
    • Keep page loading time to a minimum
    • Seek feedback
    • Assume nothing and check everything
    • Spend time promoting your site
security awareness cont d18
Security Awareness (cont’d.)
  • Security awareness conference
    • Have a guest speaker or even a mini-conference dedicated to the topic
      • Perhaps in association with the semi-annual National Computer Security Days: October 31 and April 4
summary
Summary
  • Introduction
  • Organising for security
  • Placing information security within an organisation
  • Components of the security program
  • Information security roles and titles
  • Implementing security education, training, and awareness programs