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DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES. ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS. AUXILIARY FACTILITIES . AS LISTED IN THE TEXT:. GENERAL CATEGORIES. PLANT UTILITY SYSTEMS STEAM WATER AIR POWER NATURAL GAS MINOR UTILITIES FIRE SYSTEMS INERT GASES WASTE DISPOSAL SEWERS

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direct fixed cost estimates

DIRECT FIXED COST ESTIMATES

ESTIMATE METHODS FOR AUXILIARIES AND SPECIFIC COMPONENTS

auxiliary factilities
AUXILIARY FACTILITIES
  • AS LISTED IN THE TEXT:
general categories
GENERAL CATEGORIES
  • PLANT UTILITY SYSTEMS
    • STEAM
    • WATER
    • AIR
    • POWER
    • NATURAL GAS
  • MINOR UTILITIES
    • FIRE SYSTEMS
    • INERT GASES
  • WASTE DISPOSAL
    • SEWERS
    • HAZARDOUS MATERIAL

TREATMENT SYSTEMS

  • DISTRIBUTION &

TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    • ROADS
    • RAILS
    • DOCKS

http://www.syska.com/Energy/images/St-Joes-Boiler-plnt.jpg

http://www.smvrhm.org/2misc/unk-boxcar-loading.jpg

estimate factors
ESTIMATE FACTORS
  • DEPEND ON TYPE OF FACILITY
auxiliary processes can be complicated
AUXILIARY PROCESSES CAN BE COMPLICATED
  • EXAMPLE OF WASTE TREATMENT PROCESS

http://www.uscentrifuge.com/images/process-operation2-lg.jpg

piping system cost estimates
PIPING SYSTEM COST ESTIMATES
  • ESTIMATES DEPEND ON FOLLOWING FACTORS
  • TYPE OF SYSTEM
      • WELDED
      • SCREWED
      • SWAGED FLANGES
      • WELDED FLANGES
  • MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    • SEE TABLE 12-2 FOR ALTERNATE TYPES

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piping design criteria
PIPING DESIGN CRITERIA
  • MAXIMUM VELOCITIES
    • DIAMETER IS GENERALLY SET TO MEET PROJECT CRITERIA
    • SEE TABLE 12.3 AND NOTE LIMITS AS A FUNCTION OF VISCOSITY
  • SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP (SEE MEMO CTA-02)
    • USE SPECIFIC EQUATIONS FOR LAMINAR, TURBULENT, COMPRESSIBLE AND INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW.
    • CHOOSE MORE CONSERVATIVE (LARGER DIAMETER) WHEN COMPARING RESULTS FROM VARIOUS MODELS
    • AVOID SONIC VELOCITY (VALVES ARE PRIMARY SOURCES)
other constraints
OTHER CONSTRAINTS
  • CODES
    • ASME B31.3 – PROCESS PLANT PIPING
    • ASME B31.1 – STEAM PIPING

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system curves
SYSTEM CURVES
  • PRESSURE DROP IN FLUID FLOW LINES (TOTAL HEAD)
    • USING EQUIVALENT LENGTHS REQUIRE SOME IDEA OF THE ROUTING.
    • FACTORS IN CRANE OR CAMERON.

www.fluidedesign.com/download-free/chapter4-extract.pdf

piping installation options
PIPING INSTALLATION OPTIONS
  • OVERHEAD PIPING SYSTEMS ARE EASIER TO MAINTAIN
    • RUN PIPING IN RACKS
    • MINIMUM SIZE IS GENERALLY 2"(NOM) TO ALLOW REASONABLE SPAN OF ABOUT 25 FT
    • RACK PIPING LAYOUT SHOULD ISOLATE INCOMPATIBALE MATERIALS
    • USE STRUCTURAL STEEL IN BUILDINGS

http://www.sococo.co.uk/petro-chemical.htm

subsurface piping
SUBSURFACE PIPING
  • GENERALY LOCATED IN TRENCHES
    • DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH MOST SURFACE OPTIONS
    • CAN LIMIT SPREAD OF LEAKS WHEN FLUIDS FLOW INTO TRENCHES
    • TRENCHES MUST BE PERIODICALLY DRAINED
    • HAVE MIXED EFFECTS IN FIRES
  • MANY PLANTS HAVE A COMBINATION OF OVERHEAD AND SUBSURFACE PIPING

http://www.nasm.si.edu/udvarhazy/bts/good_place/hazy_4.jpg

detailed piping design factors
DETAILED PIPING DESIGN FACTORS
  • ATTEMPT TO MAINTAIN CONSTANT VELOCITIES THROUGH SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES OF EFFICIENCY
  • USE WELDED WHERE LEAKS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS WOULD BE POSSIBLE
  • FLANGED FITTINGS ARE USED WHERE LINES MIGHT BE FREQUENTLY OPENED FOR MAINTENANCE
  • LINES 2-3"(NOM) IN DIAMETER MAY BE RUN IN THE FIELD. LARGER SHOULD BE FABRICATED IN SHOP.
piping quality checks
PIPING QUALITY CHECKS
  • RADIOGRAPHY REQUIREMENTS
    • RANGE FROM 0% ON LOW RISK SYSTEMS TO 100% ON HIGH RISK
    • 5% RANDOM A TYPICAL INTERMEDIATE VALUE.
    • THERMAL AND MECHANICAL STRESS CONSIDERATIONS
  • EXPANSION MUST BE CONSIDERED AND SYSTEMS DESIGNED TO HAVE ZERO STRESS ON EQUIPMENT NOZZLES
    • NPSH MAY BE A FACTOR WHEN DESIGN FOR PUMP INLETS. SEE PERRY'S FOR GUIDELINES
    • AVOID VAPOR TRAPS IN EQUIPMENT PIPING
    • CONTROL VALVES SHOULD BE ISOLATED TO ALLOW REMOVAL FOR MAINTENANCE WITHOUT SHUTTING DOWN THE SYSTEM
valve design criteria
VALVE DESIGN CRITERIA
  • DEPEND ON MEDIA AND SERVICE
    • POSITIVE SHUTOFF - GATES, PLUG, BALL
    • GASES - GATES FOR SHUTOFF, BUTTERFLYS FOR THROTTLING
    • CHECK VALVES - PREVENT BACKFLOW AND SHOULD BE INSTALLED AFTER ROTATING EQUIPMENT

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http://www.offshore247.com/news/article.asp?Id=3226

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relative costs for piping
RELATIVE COSTS FOR PIPING
  • SEE FIGURES 12-4 THROUGH 12-12
  • PIPING COSTS ARE LOWEST FOR SCREWED PIPING, BUT THIS IS GENERALLY LIMITED TO 6” DIAMETER OR LESS
  • STRAIGHT RUN PIPE IS GENERALLY FIELD FABRICATED IN 20 FT SECTIONS
    • AUTOMATIC WELDING MACHINES FOR FIELD INSTALLATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FOR STRAIGHT RUNS
    • SCREWED CONNECTIONS CAN ALSO BE INSTALLED IN LONGER SECTIONS
other piping cost factors
OTHER PIPING COST FACTORS
  • PIPE WITH BENDS, FITTINGS, VALVES, MULTIPLE CONNECTIONS IS TYPICALLY FABRICATED IN A SHOP
  • THE SHOP CAN BE LOCATED IN THE FIELD FOR PIPE UNDER 1 FT IN DIAMETER
  • LARGE PIPE FABRICATIONS ARE COMPLETE IN A SHOP WITH AUTOMATED WELDERS

http://home.iprimus.com.au/jackdog/lockseam22.jpg

http://www.alibaba.com/catalog/11115924/Quality_Pipe_Fittings_Elbow_Bend_Tee_Flange_Reducer.html

specific example cl 2 plants
SPECIFIC EXAMPLE Cl2 PLANTS

DATA FROM T. PAVONE

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