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الأحماض والقواعد (1) خواص المحاليل المحمضية والقاعدية (2) قياس الأس الهيدروجيني للمحاليل الحمضية - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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الباب التاسع. الأحماض والقواعد (1) خواص المحاليل المحمضية والقاعدية (2) قياس الأس الهيدروجيني للمحاليل الحمضية. Acids. Have a sour taste. رائحة قابضة حمضية الطعم Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits الفواكهة الحمضية contain citric acid.

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الباب التاسع

  • الأحماض والقواعد

    • (1) خواص المحاليل المحمضية والقاعدية

    • (2) قياس الأس الهيدروجيني للمحاليل الحمضية


Acids

Have a sour taste. رائحة قابضة حمضية الطعم

Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits الفواكهة الحمضية

contain citric acid.

React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas.

React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon

dioxide gas

Bases

Have a bitter taste. مذلقها لاذع

Feel slippery. ملمسه زلق

Many soaps contain bases. أغلب الصوابين تحتوي على قواعد


Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H+ (H3O+) in water

Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH- in water


A Brønsted acid is a proton donor

A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor

conjugatebase

قاعدة مقترنة

conjugateacid

حمض مقترن

base

acid


+

H

H

O

O

[

]

+

+

-

H

H

H

O

H

O

H

H

H2O (l) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)

H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-

(1) خواص المحاليل الحمضية والقاعدية

Acid-Base Properties of Water

Autoionization of water

conjugateacid

base

acid

conjugatebase


[H+][OH-]

Kc =

[H2O]

Solution Is

[H+] = [OH-]

neutral

At 250C

Kw = [H+][OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14

[H+] > [OH-]

acidic

H2O (l) H+(aq) + OH-(aq)

[H+] < [OH-]

basic

The Ion Product of Water

[H2O] = constant

Kc[H2O] = Kw = [H+][OH-]

The ion-product constantثابت الناتج الأيوني (Kw) is the product of the molar concentrations of H+ and OH- ions at a particular temperature. عند درجة حرارة معينة


=

[OH-] =

1 x 10-14

Kw

1.3

[H+]

What is the concentration of OH- ions in a HCl solution whose hydrogen ion concentration is 1.3 M?

Kw = [H+][OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14

[H+] = 1.3 M

= 7.7 x 10-15M


  • (2) قياس الأس الهيدروجيني للمحاليل الحمضية

  • pH & pOH pW

pH – A Measure of Acidity

pH = -log [H+]

Solution Is

At 250C

neutral

[H+] = [OH-]

[H+] = 1 x 10-7

pH = 7

[H+] > 1 x 10-7

pH < 7

acidic

[H+] > [OH-]

basic

[H+] < [OH-]

[H+] < 1 x 10-7

pH > 7


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