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IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Implementing Agreement (IA). U.S. Senate July 31, 2009 Dr. Mark C. Williams Visiting Professor, Fellow of the Electrochemical Society. New Industrial Revolution. We will always have chemical energy from sunlight on this planet

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iea advanced fuel cells implementing agreement ia

IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Implementing Agreement (IA)

U.S. Senate

July 31, 2009

Dr. Mark C. Williams

Visiting Professor, Fellow of the Electrochemical Society

new industrial revolution
New Industrial Revolution
  • We will always have chemical energy from sunlight on this planet
    • Coal, petroleum and natural gas are stored chemical energy from the past
    • Methane from human, animal and plant residues and wastes captured from sunlight will be available for tomorrow
  • Fuel cells technology transforms electricity production in stationary and transportation applications because it is the most efficient way to convert chemical energy to electricity
  • Fuel cells are the enabler for all types of primary energy - coal, NG, biomass. When fuel cells are placed in systems converting the chemical energy of these primary energies to electricity, fuel cells make all the systems more efficient.
ia aims scope participation
IA Aims, scope & participation
  • The IA aims to advance knowledge in the field of (advanced) fuel cells.
  • Task shared R&D + information exchange
  • Covers technologies and applications for:
    • Polymer Fuel Cells (PEFC)
    • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
    • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)
  • 19 participating countries including USA, EU members, Japan
annexes list sponsor 2008
Annexes List/Sponsor – 2008
  • Annex XVI Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (US DOE, Argonne National Laboratory)
  • Annex XVII Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (KIST, Korea)
  • Annex XVIII Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (varies between the member countries – now Finland)
  • Annex XIX Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications (Eon, Sweden – SOFC, MCFC, PEFC)
  • Annex XX Fuel Cells for Transportation (ECN, Netherlands [1] PEFC and SOFC (APU))
  • Annex XXI Fuel Cells for Portable Power (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany - PEFC)

[1][1]Operating Agent for Annex XX was TU Berlin, Germany until November 2006

annex structure

Technology annexes

Application annexes

MCFC

Stationary

SOFC

Transport

PEFC

Portable

Annex structure
slide8

Systems Analysis — Petroleum Use

Analysis shows DOE’s portfolio of transportation technologies will reduce oil consumption.

Program Record #9002, www.hydrogen.energy.gov/program_records.html.

slide9

Systems Analysis — Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Analysis shows DOE’s portfolio of transportation technologies will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

Program Record #9002, www.hydrogen.energy.gov/program_records.html.

revolutionizing power production use seca as a part of doe s strategy
Revolutionizing Power Production & Use: SECA as a part of DOE’s Strategy

Generation

Transmission

Distribution

End-Use

Today

coal

light

electricity

electricity

electricity

100

~ 35

~ 33

~ 31

~4

65% loss

~ 4.8% loss

~ 5.1% loss

~ 88% loss

DOE

Programs

SECA: Solid State SOFC

Solid-State Lighting

SMART GRID

Coal, gas, renewables

light

electricity

electricity

100

~ 60

~ 55

Future

>40

SECA and other DOE programs can realistically reduce fuel use to meet U.S. lighting needs by more than 10x in the medium-term!

Adapted from AEP, Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, June 2009

technical achievements 2004 2008
Technical Achievements 2004-2008
  • Technology annexes:
    • Materials & process development
    • Stack development & testing
    • System modelling
  • Applications annexes:
    • Learning from demonstration projects
    • Market studies
    • Well to wheel studies
usa benefits

“One of Best forum for understanding

world R&D status of fuel cell technology –

pace and direction; discussion of difficulties and obstacles in fuel cell commercialization; Identification of markets for USA products.

Information exchange

USA Benefits
wider benefits 2004 2008

“Being a multi-disciplinary research area, fuel cellsneed to be cross-fertilized by people from different laboratories around the world” “The level of opennessand personal contact is superior to bigger conferences”

Open discussion oftechnical issues

Information exchange

“The primary benefit is that you get a true internationalnetwork within fuel cells. There are no other forumswhere you can cooperate with Japan, USA, Canada etc.”

National programmes

“The IEA work has enabled us to shape the hydrogenand fuel cell program in the Netherlands”

Further collaboration

“Participation enabled POSCO (a Korean steel maker)to start new fuel cell business with FCE of USA”

Wider Benefits2004-2008
strategy for the period 2009 2013
Strategy for the period2009-2013

Further strengthen cooperation through activities that:

  • Continue and expand the informational network
  • Perform market assessment and monitoring
  • Identify and lower barriers to implementation
  • Develop technical and economically viable stacks and systems
  • Stimulate tools for, and knowledge of, balance of plant
  • Increase the value of demonstration programmes by evaluating test data
  • Contribute to feasibility studies of deployment of FC technologies

In this way the Implementing Agreement (IA) can make a major contribution to addressing the barriers to FC commercialisation and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of other national and international FC activities.

annexes future
Annexes - Future
  • Annex 22: Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
  • Annex 23: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
  • Annex 24: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
  • Annex 25: Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications
  • Annex 26: Fuel Cells for Transportation
  • Annex 27: Fuel Cells for Portable Applications
thank you for your attention

Thank you for your attention

For further information please contact:

Mrs Heather Haydock

Secretary, IEA Advanced Fuel Cells Executive Committee

heather.haydock@aeat.co.uk

Or see the web site at

www.ieafuelcell.com

annex accomplishments
Annex Accomplishments
  • Annex XX: Fuel Cells for Transportation
    • Information has been shared on targets, status and projections for automotive fuel cell systems, including results from a study of the cost breakdown of components of a PEMFC stack. A review has been undertaken of hydrogen storage options and their status, characteristics and challenges. Information has been exchanged on the progress and future plans of fuel cell vehicle development programmes in participant countries.
  • Annex XXI: Fuel Cells for Portable Applications
    • Two expert meetings were held in 2005 and 2006, at which information was exchanged on system analysis, system, stack and cell development, and materials innovation.
annex accomplishments1
Annex Accomplishments
  • Annex XIX: Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications
    • A study has been completed on the market prospects for fuel cells in different countries based on the latest available information regarding the development of and the market conditions for stationary fuel cell systems. One of the important outcomes from this market study is that the different conditions in different countries and regions like energy prices, grid stability, demand pattern for heating and cooling domestic energy sources etc are very important for the introduction of fuel cells. The conditions are not at all the same and this is especially valid for the small stationary fuel cells. For the larger fuel cells it is not so sensitive as they operate for longer periods with base load characteristics and can ideally use locally produced fuels. In that case is the investment costs not that important but the high efficiency and reliability of the fuel cells plant are major advantages. The environmental advantages are also one of the major factors for the decision to invest in a stationary fuel cells plant.
    • The Annex XIX subtask describing fuels for fuel cells has developed a comprehensive library of different possible fuels for stationary fuel cells. In almost any country or region, biofuels and waste gases can be used with significant advantage in stationary fuel cells. Biogas produced from anaerobic digester plants based on sewage or agriculture waste, manure etc can be used in high temperature fuel cells with significantly higher efficiency than other conventional technologies. This technology is now demonstrated at several sites in different countries. The biogas as such is an aggressive greenhouse gas that now can be as fuel for production of electricity and heat.
    • About two thirds of the costs for a fuel cell plant is related to the balance of plant. As a significant cost reduction is needed if stationary fuel cells are to be commercially competitive, the costs of balance of plant components must be reduced. Annex XIX has started to investigate if this is feasible. It was a difficult task, as the developers of fuel cell systems and components considered this to be proprietary information. The focus of the task was then changed to concentrate more on the specification of balance of plant components.
annex accomplishments2
Annex Accomplishments
  • Annex XVI: Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells
    • Technical achievements in Annex XVI have included sharing of information on:
      • new methods for making lower-cost, higher durability platinum electrodes,
      • development of an ammonia-fuelled PEFC,
      • development of an 80kW system for fuel cell locomotives,
      • understanding of the degradation mechanisms involved when cells are started up and shut down, and when they are exposed to sub zero temperatures,
      • development of a PEFC stack simulator for system studies,
      • studies on the effect of air impurities on the performance of cell components, and
      • performance modelling of high temperature PEFCs.
  • Annex XVII: Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells
    • The latest R&D data on MCFC stack and system performance have been presented and discussed at annual workshops. Discussions have centred on reducing stack degradation rates and costs through better design and improved materials.
  • Annex XVIII: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
    • Annex XIII has held a series of successful annual workshops to exchange information on SOFC cells, stacks and systems. Workshops held to date have addressed low cost manufacture and design; low temperature operation; systems, and; modelling of cell and stack operation and electrode processes. They have also provided an opportunity to share information on national programmes and industry activities.
slide21

Fuel Cells are Part of DOE’s Strategy to electrify the transportation sector to reduce dependence on oil and reduce GHGs

  • Hydrogen & Fuel Cells for Transportation (in the U.S.):
    • > 200 fuel cell vehicles
    • > 20 hydrogen-fueled buses
    • ~ 60 fueling stations
  • Several carmakers (including GM, Honda, Daimler) have announced plans for increased deployments in the next few years.

H2 & Fuel Cells — Where are we today?

Production & Delivery of Hydrogen

  • In the U.S., there are currently:
    • ~9 million metric tons of H2 produced annually
    • > 1,200 miles of H2 pipelines

Fuel Cells for Auxiliary Power and Specialty Vehicles

The largest markets for fuel cells today are in stationary power, portable power, auxiliary power units, and forklifts.

~52,000 fuel cells have been shipped worldwide.

~18,000 fuel cells were shipped in 2008.

Fuel cells can be a cost-competitive option for critical-load facilities, backup power, and forklifts

doe programs to revolutionize energy production and utilization

Generation

Generation

Transmission

Transmission

Distribution

Distribution

End UseUtilization

End UseUtilization

65.5% loss

65.5% loss

~ 4.8% loss

~ 4.8% loss

~ 5.1% loss

~ 5.1% loss

~ 88% loss

~ 88% loss

electricity

electricity

electricity

electricity

electricity

electricity

coal

coal

100

100

~ 35

~ 35

~ 33

~ 33

~ 31

~ 31

~4

~4

DOE Programs to Revolutionize Energy Production and Utilization

SECA:Solid State

SOFC

SMART GRID

Solid-State Lighting

AEP Ohio Fuel Cell Coalition, June 2009

Getting the most out of R&D dollars –

By cutting Generation Losses in half, SECA’s SOFCs can revolutionize the central generation power industry

overview of presentation
Overview of presentation
  • Introduction to the programme
  • Achievements 2004-2008
  • Strategy 2009-2013
slide25

Advanced Fuel Cells

Advanced Materials for Transportation

Advanced Motor Fuels

Bioenergy

Buildings and Community Systems (ECBCS)

Clean Coal Sciences

Climate Technology Initiative (CTI)

Demand-Side Management

District Heating and Cooling

Efficient Electrical End-Use Equipment

Electricity Networks Analysis, Research & Development (ENARD)

Emissions Reduction in Combustion

Energy Storage

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE)

Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP)

Enhanced Oil Recovery

Environmental, Safety and Economic Aspects of Fusion Power

Fluidized Bed Conversion

Fusion Materials

Geothermal

Greenhouse Gas RD Programme

Heat Pumping Technologies

High-Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) on the Electric Power Sector

Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

Hydrogen

Hydropower

IEA Clean Coal Centre

Industrial Energy-Related Technologies and Systems

Large Tokamaks

Multiphase Flow Sciences

Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors

Ocean Energy Systems

Photovoltaic Power Systems

Plasma Wall Interaction in TEXTOR

Renewable Energy Technology Deployment

Reversed Field Pinches

Solar Heating and Cooling

SolarPACES

Spherical Tori

Stellarator Concept

Tokomaks with Poloidal Field Divertors (ASDEX Upgrade)

Wind Energy Systems

Current Implementing Agreements:

proposed programme 2009 2013
Proposed programme2009-2013
  • Continuation of the programme with a similar content and structure
  • Strategy for all Annexes in place
  • 16 of 19 current participants have confirmed they will continue (and the others are likely to)
  • Additional cross-annex activities being considered
  • Co-ordination with other IAs will continue
iea afc programme 2009 2013

MCFC

SOFC

PEFC

IEA AFC programme2009-2013
  • R&D activities
  • Materials development (all)
  • Component development (all)
  • Stack/system modelling (PEFC, SOFC)
  • Biomass fuelling (MCFC)
  • Demonstration activities
  • Exchange of experience (MCFC. SOFC)
iea afc programme 2009 20131

Stationary

Transport

Portable

IEA AFC programme2009-2013
  • Demonstration activities
  • Exchange of demonstration experience
  • System studies
  • Commercialisation activities
  • Market & cost studies
  • Well-to-wheel studies
  • Supporting activities
  • Support to codes & standards authorities

In collaboration with other IEA Agreements including Hydrogen and Hybrid & Electric Vehicles