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Student Guide to APA 6 th edition. 2012-2013. What is APA Format?. APA Style establishes consistent standards of written communication concerning : the organization of content & writing style citing references and how to prepare a manuscript for publication in certain disciplines.

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slide1

Student Guide

to APA 6th edition

2012-2013

slide2

What is APA Format?

  • APA Style establishes consistent standards of written communication concerning:
    • the organization of content & writing style
    • citing references
    • and how to prepare a manuscript for publication in certain disciplines
slide3

Why Do I Need to Use APA?

  • Aside from simplifying the work of editors by having everyone use the same format for a given publication, using APA Style makes it easier for readers to understand a text by providing a familiar structure they can follow. Abiding by APA's standards as a writer will allow you to:
    • Provide readers with cues they can use to follow your ideas more efficiently and to locate information of interest to them
    • Allow readers to focus more on your ideas by not distracting them with unfamiliar formatting
    • Establish your credibility or ethos in the field by demonstrating an awareness of your audience and their needs as fellow researchers

Taken from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/664/1/

slide4

Who Uses APA?

  • APA is used to document papers in fields such as:
    • Business
    • Health
    • Technology
  • In other words, all majors and professions at DU!  This includes you!
slide5

Similarities & Differences Between APA & MLA

  • APA and MLA use parenthetical citations in the text to refer readers to sources at the end of the paper.
  • APA and MLA both use numbered notes to add information that would interrupt the flow of the writing.
  • APA lists of works cited in the paper are called “References”; MLA lists are “Works Cited.”
  • Unlike MLA, APA includes the publication date in parenthetical citations, and the date appears after the author’s name in the References.
  • Unlike MLA, which lists an author’s full name on the Works Cited page, APA uses the author’s last name and only initials for the first and middle names.
  • APA and MLA capitalize, italicize, and use quotes with titles differently.
  • Taken from Prentice Hall’s Reference Guide, 8th edition, p. 456
slide6

Components of an APA Paper

  • Cover page (also called a title page)
  • Abstract (approximately half a page)
  • Body/text (with in-text citations)
  • References page
  • Optional: Figures, charts, photos
slide7

General Format of an APA Paper

  • Double-spaced
  • 12-point Times New Roman font
  • One-inch margins on all sides
  • Two spaces after all end-of-sentence punctuation
  • Left-hand justification margins (no right-hand justification)
  • Tab key paragraph indentations
  • Running header flush to the left margin (if required)
  • Page numbers in header, flush to the right margin
slide8

Title/Cover Page in APA Format

Each title page should have:

  • A running head
  • A page number
  • Identifying information (title, student name, university name)
title cover page in apa format optional info
Title/Cover Page in APA Format (Optional Info.)

NOTE:The first three lines are required; the last three lines are optional. Always follow the request of your instructors.

slide10

Details of an APA Abstract

  • Note that this is now page 2 of the paper; students should remove the words “Running head:” from their header, leaving only the all-caps portion.
  • The word “Abstract” is centered on the page, with no font changes.
  • The abstract begins without indentation on the second line of text.
slide11

Details of the Body in an APA Paper

  • The title of the paper is restated at the top of the page, centered with no font changes.
  • If the paper uses section headings, there are specific formatting guidelines for them. (refer to A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition)
slide12

General Format of an APA Paper: Headings

Headings:

  • The first is for a major heading; the others are for subheadings beneath the major heading.
  • Follow the pattern in the chart:
slide13

General Format of an APA Paper: In-Text Citations

  • Avoid plagiarism by correctly citing in APA:
    • Direct Quotes
    • Paraphrases
    • Summaries
  • Please refer to pages 166-175 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6thedition.
slide14

In-text Citation Basics

  • Direct Quote
    • Enclose the quote in quotation marks
    • Provide the author
    • Year of publication
    • Print sources add a “p.” (page number)
    • Electronic sources add a “para.” (paragraph number)
    • Include a signal phrase (p. 171-172 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition)
    • When using quote marks, all periods and commas go inside the quote, ALWAYS, except when using a citation demonstrated below.
  • Example:

Jenny Jones discovered, "students often had difficulty using APA style" (1998, p. 199).

slide15

In-Text Citation Basics

  • Paraphrases & Summaries
    • If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)
      • Provide the author
      • Year of publication
      • Print sources add a “p.” (page number)
      • Electronic sources add a “para.” (paragraph number)
      • Include a signal phrase (p. 171-172 in A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition)
        • Helps to show beginning and end of source

Example:

According to Jones, APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. The APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

slide16

The APA Reference Page

  • The Reference page begins on itsown page (not included at the end of the last page of the essay). (Hit CTRL-ENTER to start a new page.)
  • The word “References” is listed at the top and centered, with no font change.
  • Listings are put in alphabetical order by author’s last name (if no author is available, use the title). The date will never begin a reference on this page.
slide17

Reference Page Basics

  • Different types of sources have different requirements for what needs to be included, but the basics are:
    • Author(s)
    • Date of publication
    • Title
    • Title of periodical (if necessary) with volume and issue numbers
    • Page numbers (if part of a periodical)
    • Website retrieval information (if a web source)
    • DOIs (if available)
slide18

Reference Page Basics

  • Each reference cited in text must appear on the References page
  • Each entry on the References page must be cited in text
  • Two exceptions (in-text citations only):
  • Classical works
  • Personal Communications
slide19

Reference Page Basic Examples

Book

Author. (Year). Title. City, State: Publisher.

Example:

Bradshaw, C. (2012). Foreplay and the suburbs: A prequel to Sex and the City. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

slide20

Reference Page Basic Examples

Simple Website Citation

Author. (Date published if available; n.d.--no date-- if not). Title of article. Title of Website. “Retrieved” date, “from” URL.

Example:

Jones, H. (n.d.). Why did it have to be snakes? Raiders of the Lost References. Retrieved May 1, 2011, from http:www.indyrefs.com/snakes.htm

(Notice, there is no period after a URL when ending the reference)

(A date is only required if there is a belief that the webpage will disappear in the future; otherwise state, “Retrieve from URL”)

slide21

Reference Page Basic Examples

General Journal Citation

Author. (Year). Article title. Title of Journal, number of the edition, pages.

Example:

Summers, B. (2002). Stake your claim: Innovations in vampire slaying. Journal of Modern Demonology, 42(3),149-159.

*Include the DOI if it is on the article:

doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9351-2

slide22

Citation Assistance

  • www.apastyle.org
  • http://owl.english.purdue.edu/
  • www.citationmachine.net
  • www.bibme.org
  • A Pocket Style Manual, 6th edition
  • NoodleTools(DU library resource)
  • DU’s APA Brief Overview document is available through the library webpage and under “research services” link and “APA help” link.