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Chapter 19 World War I and Its Aftermath. Section 2 The Home Front. Building Up the Military. As the U.S. entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers. Many progressives thought conscription , or forced military service, violated both democratic and republican principles.

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Chapter 19World War I and Its Aftermath

Section 2

The Home Front

Building up the military l.jpg
Building Up the Military

  • As the U.S. entered the war; it was necessary to recruit more soldiers.

  • Many progressives thought conscription, or forced military service, violated both democratic and republican principles.

  • A new system of conscription, called selective service, resulted in about 2.8 million Americans being drafted.

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African Americans in War

  • African American soldiers faced discrimination and prejudice within the army, where they served in racially segregated units under the control of white officers.

  • Many won praise from their commanders and won medals.

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Women in the Military

  • WWI was the first war in which women officially served.

  • Navy enlisted 11,000 women.

  • The army, refusing to enlist women, hired them as temporary employees to fill clerical positions.

  • Army nurses were the only women in the military to go overseas during the war.

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Organizing Industry

  • President Wilson and Congress agreed that the gov’t should not control the economy.

  • They wanted to establish a cooperative relationship between big business and gov’t to ensure efficient use of resources during the mobilization of the American economy for war.

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The War Industries Board

  • 1917 – the WIB was created to coordinate the production of war materials.

  • 1918 – the WIB was reorganized and Bernard Baruch, a wealthy Wall Street stockbroker, was appointed to run it.

  • Controlled the flow of raw materials, ordered construction of new factories, and, with the president’s approval, set prices.

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Food and Fuel

  • The Food Administration, under Herbert Hoover, was responsible for increasing food production while reducing consumption.

  • Hoover asked people to plant victory gardens to raise their own vegetables in order to leave more food for the troops.

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Food and Fuel

  • The Fuel Administration encouraged people to conserve coal and oil.

  • Daylight savings time was introduced to conserve industry.

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Paying for the War

  • *Don’t Write*

  • By the end of the war the U.S. was spending about $44 million a day – leading to a total expenditure of about $32 billion.

  • Taxes alone could not cover the expenditures.

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Paying for the War

  • To raise money, the gov’t began selling Liberty Bonds and Victory Bonds.

  • By buying bonds, Americans were loaning money that would be repaid with interest in a specified number of years.

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Mobilizing the Workforce

  • To prevent strikes, the National War Labor Board (NWLB) was established in 1918.

  • In exchange for wage increases, 8 hour workday, and the right to organize unions and bargain collectively, the labor leaders agreed not to disrupt war production with a strike.

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Women Support Industry

  • The war increased the need for women in the workforce.

  • They took factory and manufacturing jobs and positions in the shipping and RR industries.

  • After the war, women returned to their previous jobs or left the workforce.

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The Great Migration Begins

  • The war stopped the flow of immigrants to the U.S., which allowed African Americans wartime jobs.

  • B/w 300,000 & 500,000 AA left the South to settle in the North.

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Mexican Americans Head North

  • Many Mexicans moved north, providing labor for farmers and ranchers in the American SW.

  • Mexicans also took wartime factory jobs.

  • Faced discrimination and hostility from all Americans.

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“Selling the War”

  • The Committee on Public Information (CPI), was a new gov’t agency that attempted to “sell” the idea of war to the American people.

  • Pamphlets and speeches helped deliver patriotic messages.

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Civil Liberties Curtailed

  • Espionage, or spying to acquire secret gov’t information, was addressed in the Espionage Act of 1917.

  • It set up consequences for people who aided the enemy.

  • The Sedition Act of 1918 went a step further by making it illegal to criticize the president or gov’t.

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Climate of Suspicion

  • Suspicion of disloyalty led to the mistreatment of German-Americans.

  • Feeling led to violence.

  • Anyone appearing disloyal came under attack.

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Supreme Court Limits Free Speech

  • Schenck v. the U.S. (1919), the Supreme Court ruled limiting an individual’s freedom of speech if the words spoken constituted a “clear and present danger.”

  • Example: “FIRE!”

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End of Section 2

Next: Section 4

The War’s Impact