Introduction: The Evolution of Electronic Media • TV • Video Games • Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing • Internet Gambling • Cyber Sex Addiction
Start the Argument Good Bad Indifferent
The Psychology of Gaming • Primary Task for Adolescents – form coherent sense of self • Possibility of cyber space to create persona’s that substitute for face to face interaction • Thus “some” people suffer aftershock of failure to develop genuine closeness • AND MAYBE THESE EFFECT A PERSON”S PRIMARY NEED FOR LOVE AND BELONGING
The Games are Addictive Because of there very Nature • Television Passive Observation • Video games require full attention and interaction • However, the majority of people who play video games use them for enjoyment and relaxation without any problems, compulsion and loss of control.
Video Games Monies • Exceeding motion picture in terms of dollars spent 2006 • The NPD Group, U.S. retail sales of video games, which includes portable and console hardware, software and accessories, generated revenues of close to $19.66 billion in 2009, an 8 percent decline over the $21.4 billion generated in 2008. • In 2000 the industry earned 7.9billion (NPD, 2010).
Addictive Nature of the Games • Control every aspect of the character – create as if world • Variable timed positive outcomes • Successful maneuvers reward visual stimuli or are rewarding in themselves • Offer as an escape • Fantasy • Release of dopamine
Are you Addicted to the Internet? Previous reports suggest that 8 to 13% of undergraduates are addicted to the internet (Yen, 2009). Terms to describe this compulsion: The newly behavioral problems manifesting from heavy Internet use have been termed “Internet addiction” , “problematic Internet use”, or “pathological Internet use (Yen, 2009).
Internet Addiction for College Students DC-IC-A 5 of the following have to be present over the past 3 months A) 1) Preoccupation with internet activities 2) Recurrent failure to resist the impulse to use internet 3) Tolerance: a market increase in the duration internet use needed to achieve satisfaction 4) Withdrawal, as manifested by either of the following • Dysphoric mood, anxiety, irritability, and boredom after several days without internet use • Use of Internet to relieve or avoid 5) Use of internet longer for a period longer than desired 6) Persistent Desire and/or unsuccessful attempts to cut down or reduce internet use 7) Excessive time spent on internet activities 8) Excessive effort spent on activities necessary to obtain access to the internet 9) Continued heavy internet use despite knowing having a recurrent physical / psychological problem exacerbated by internet use
B. Functional Impairment One of more of the symptoms have to be present Recurrent internet use resulting in failure to fulfill major obligations at work, school, home Important social recreational activities are given up or reduced because of internet use Recurrent legal problems because of internet behavior (disorderly conduct in game)
C. Internet Behavior not better accounted for by: Psychotic disorder Bipolar I disorder or other disorder which is classified as an: Impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR
On-Line Games • Players are both the youth, adults, and older adults • Player may act as themselves as use avatars to express ideal self or aspects thereof • Virtual world gamers (second life / WOW) tend to find emotional satisfaction be being able to select environments and life events compatible with how I would like to be.
Current Internet Gambling: 2093 Online Sites http://online.casinocity.com/
Current Internet Gambling: Providers • 48 jurisdictions • Major providers are: • Gibraltar (208 sites) • United Kingdom (98 sites) • Malta (314 sites) • Alderney (62 sites) • Isle of Man (14 sites) • Netherland Antilles (257 sites) • Austria (9 sites) • Costa Rica (218 sites) • Antigua (76 sites)
World’s 3rd Largest Provider • Canada! • KahnawakeMohawk Territory in Quebec hosts the worlds second highest number of online gambling sites (n = 256) • http://www.canadian-casinos-online.com/kahnawake-gaming-commission.html • http://www.allslotscasino.com/ca/
Current Internet Gambling: Market Share • $15-20 billion in 2008, with sports/race books, casinos and poker accounting for large majority • 4-5% of worldwide gambling market • Patronage uncertain: North America (30-35%) Asia (11 – 49%); Europe (23-44%) • U.S., China, U.K. largest single markets within these continents
Concerns with Internet Gambling • Internet gambling by prohibited groups (underage, site employees) • 50% of N.A. high school and college/university students have played on free play online gambling site (Derevensky et al., 2006) • 2% - 9% of North American youth report having gambled online for money
Problems with Internet Gambling • Nature of Internet Gambling makes it conducive to producing Problem Gambling • 24 hr immediate access • Solitary play • Immersive interface • ‘electronic cash’ • Ability to play under influence of drugs or alcohol • In general, evidence suggests the prevalence of problem gambling is 3 to 4 times higher in Internet gamblers
Structural Addictive Factors and Online Gambling • Bet Sizes and Bill Acceptors • Conflicting evidence regarding bet sizes • Meanwhile bill acceptors may cause: • Un-interrupted play • De-value money • Isolated play
Playability Characteristics (Structural) • Bonus Game, the game within the game • The idea behind the bonus game is to increase playability and ultimately give the gambler an illusion of control. • As such, the gambler believes that they have more ability to bring about a win, manipulated through...
Stop Buttons • Gamble Buttons • Essentially, the bonus games along with the latter features brings us to the • Near Miss
The Near Miss • The near miss or near win, is any non-winning outcome that is perceived by the gambler to be almost successful. • Hence, the bonus games, stop buttons, nearly hitting three symbols, or three lines, visually entice the gambler to continue to play.
The Near Miss (cont.) • According to Kahneman and Tversky , nearly winning produces a frustration and cognitive regret... • Whereby, if we continue to play we can eliminate the cognitive regret by actually getting the win, picking the larger bonus prize, ect.
Psychology of Familiarity • Other technological advances in EGM machines have also played into the hands of the structural marketing technique known as “psychology of familiarity.” • This speaks to playing on one machine more than the other. • Beyond the obvious attraction to the common, novel, (socially and culturally) Parke and Griffiths (2007) hold that gamblers may fall victim the psychology of familiarity because...
Psychology of Familiarity • EGM gamers trust in an international symbol (celebrity) – thus jackpots maybe be higher, “I won’t be ripped off.” • Experience , gamblers believe they have an added advantage because they have knowledge of the game (i.e., price is right, wheel of fortune), which directly affect the EGM game. • Fun – the newer games are more interactive, music is hip, humorous, ect. • Ultimately, in addition to the newer games being played more, gamblers supposedly may not be affected by their losses as usual, and continue to play despite mounting losses.
Psychology of Familiarity • Fear Factor • Price is Right • Monopoly • Wheel of Fortune • Simpsons • Spider Man • King Kong