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Shobna Bhatia. Title and Abstract. Aim of publishing. Fame Recognition Advance science Requirement for professional recognition …. Title: Purposes. To draw the attention of a prospective reader To induce him / her to read the entire paper or at least the abstract

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Title and abstract l.jpg

Shobna Bhatia

Title and Abstract


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Aim of publishing

  • Fame

  • Recognition

  • Advance science

  • Requirement for professional recognition

  • …..


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Title: Purposes

  • To draw the attention of a prospective reader

  • To induce him / her to read the entire paper or at least the abstract

  • To make electronic retrieval of the article both sensitive and specific


Title l.jpg
Title

Simple and concise, but informative

Interesting and eye-catching

Accurate and specific about paper’s content

State the subject in full

Indicate study design, animal species

Grammatically correct

State results or not ?


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Title

Do not Use abbreviations (unless well accepted)Use literary titlesUse interrogative/exclamatory titlesUse all capitals


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Title

Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 cases

Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease

Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs


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Title

Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 casesSmall bowel intussusception in children: A report of 55 cases

Studies on cobalt estimation in liver disease

Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs


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Title

Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 casesSmall bowel intussusception in children: …

Studies on cobalt estimation in liver diseaseSerum cobalt levels in patients with cirrhosis of liver

Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugs


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Title

Pediatric intussusception: A report of 55 casesSmall bowel intussusception in children: …

Studies on cobalt estimation in liver diseaseSerum cobalt levels in patients with cirrhosis of liver

Comparative study of two new hypoglycemic drugsComparison of hypoglycemic effects of A and B with chlorpropamide in diabetic nude mice


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Keywords

Words or short phrases used for cross-indexing, and retrieval

3-10 identifiers representing main concepts included in the article

Use MeSH words

Exclude words already in title

Arrange alphabetically


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Keywords >> Possible title

Key words

  • Coeliac disease

  • Children

  • India

  • Studied

    • Clinical features

    • Nutritional status

    • Histopathology findings


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Keywords >> Possible Title

Key words

  • Coeliac disease

  • Children

  • India

  • Clinical features, nutritional status, histopathology findings

    Title

    Coeliac disease in Indian children: Assessment of clinical, nutritional and pathologic characteristics


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Keywords >> Possible title

Key words

  • Hepatitis B virus

  • Asymptomatic infection

  • Transmission of infection to babies

  • Viral kinetics


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Keywords >> Possible Titles

  • Asymptomatic hepatitis B virus infection is associated with low viral load and transmission of disease to babies

  • Hepatitis B virus with low viral load – low risk of transmission of disease to babies

  • Low viral load in hepatitis B is associated with low risk of transmission of virus to babies


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Title: examples

  • Original paperEffects of tegaserod and erythromycin in patients with upper gut dysmotility- a comparative study

  • EditorialPromotility drugs: not all uniform?


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Title: examples

  • A placebo-controlled trial of interferon gamma-1b in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  • Self-reported treatment adherence in inflammatory bowel disease in Indian patients

  • Daily aspirin -- only half the answer

  • Influence of baicalin on TNF-α mRNA expression in pancreatic tissue and apoptosis of pancreatic acinar cells of rats with severe acute pancreatitis


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Abstract

  • A succinct, accurate, summary of the paper

  • Purposes

    • Included in several abstracting services (including Medline)

    • Helps readers browse and decide

  • Independent (stand-alone)


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Abstract

  • A brief statement of chief points

  • Short but intelligible

  • Informative and interesting

  • Avoid unnecessary detail

  • Stand alone

  • Accurate


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Abstract

IMRAD pattern: purpose, basic procedures, main findings, principal conclusions

Structured/unstructured

Length: 150-250 words

No information not included in main body

Not a copy of sentences in the text

No references or abbreviations

Include main statistical conclusions


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Structured abstract

• Background • Objective

• Methods • Design

• Results • Setting

• Conclusion • Subjects

• Intervention

• Main outcome measures

• Results

• Conclusions

+ Background, limitations


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Structured abstract

Background/Objectives: Disease progression in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may have association with different genotypes of the virus. In view of limited data available, we studied the prevalence/association and role of HBV genotypes, with reference to the viral and host characteristics in patients, reflecting the chronic form of the disease.

Methods: A total of 96 HBsAg seropositive and chronically infected patients attending the Gastroenterology out patients’ department of ___ Gastroenterology were studied for determination of HBV genotypes by nested PCR using type- specific primers. Biochemical markers of liver functions and HBe antigen status were evaluated by standard methods. Serum HBV DNA levels of patients were also measured by real-time PCR using Taqman® chemistry.


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Structured abstract

Results: HBV genotype was noted to be in the order of D (N= 80; 69.5%) > A (N=10; 8.6%) > B (N= 3; 2.6%) or B+ D (N= 3; 2.6%). Higher viral load (7.68 x 108 copies/ml) was associated in patients with elevated serum ALT activity (> 64 IU/L). Majority of the patients (86.3 %) also tested negative for HBe Ag upon serological analysis.

Conclusion: Identification of genotype B individually and intermingling of this genotype with the common genotype D is now reported for the first time from India. A detailed follow-up study, involving larger number of such patients might be helpful for better understanding of the HBV disease transmission and pathogenesis.


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Structured abstract: Drug trial

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a single large oral dose of vitamin A in treating acute shigellosis in children in Bangladesh.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

Setting: Dhaka Hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Subjects: 83 children aged 1­7 years with bacteriologically proved shigellosis but no clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency; 42 were randomized to treatment with vitamin A and 41 formed a control group.

Intervention: Children were given a single oral dose of 200,000 IU of vitamin A plus 25 IU vitamin E or a control preparation of 25 IU vitamin E.


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Unstructured abstract

Little information is available on the knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers. We administered a 10-point questionnaire to test knowledge about scientific writing among medical teachers participants attending a writing workshop. 32 medical teachers participated. Of these, only 20 (63%) achieved a score of 50% or above. The younger participants (aged less than 30 years) scored worse than the older participants (aged > 30 years), the average scores in the two groups being 6.5 + 1.5 and 4.5 + 1.7, respectively (t-test; p<0.05). Indian medical teachers lack skills in medical writing and steps to improve this are needed.


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Differences with main paper

  • Main focus is Methods and Results

  • V short introduction and Discussion


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Some guidelines in Abstract

  • Do not provide

    • References

    • Figures

    • Tables

    • Long introduction / Discussion


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Consistency

  • Main text

    • No mismatch in numbers / results

    • No contradictions


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Conclusions

  • Title should be accurate, detailed, interesting

  • Abstract

    • Structured vs unstructured

    • Short, concise and accurate


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