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Language Resources and Tools For Supporting The System Engineering Process. Onditi V. O. et. al. Computing Department Lancaster University. Overview. System Engineering is a collaborative process. The process is characterised by decisions: about the product about the process

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language resources and tools for supporting the system engineering process

Language Resources and Tools For Supporting The System Engineering Process

Onditi V. O. et. al.

Computing Department

Lancaster University

overview
Overview
  • System Engineering is a collaborative process.
  • The process is characterised by decisions:
    • about the product
    • about the process
  • The decisions are used for estimating individual’s contribution, system maintenance and training

NLDB 2004

challenges solutions
Challenges/Solutions
  • Challenges
    • Decisions aren’t adequately recorded
      • Use different strategies for recording decisions e.g. use both minutes and audio
    • Decisions are unstructured and therefore difficult to retrieve and use
      • Use formal representations during capture
    • Formalism introduces cognitive overload on decision makers

NLDB 2004

challenges solutions cont d
Challenges/Solutions (Cont’d)
    • Decisions are implicitly recorded
      • Discover decisions through actions
  • Solution
    • Use unstructured representation to create and share a structured representation

NLDB 2004

the architecture
The architecture

POS/Semantic

Rules

Indicator Words

POS/Semantic Tagging

Document Stream

Tokenization

Structure/Style Rules

Extract Actions Sentences

Syntactic Pattern

Store Action & Context on DB

Html derived document

NLDB 2004

document tokenisation
Document tokenisation
  • Use document’s style and structure to break a document into paragraphs.
  • Use string patterns to tokenise the paragraphs into:
    • sentences, multi-word-expressions, and words

NLDB 2004

analysing a document s content
Analysing a document’s content
  • Analysis is done at two levels:
    • surface and
    • deep (syntactic/semantic)
  • In surface analysis:
    • choose and constrain indicator words.
    • use indicator words for identifying agenda items and minute items.

NLDB 2004

analysing a document s content cont d
Analysing a document’s content (cont’d)
  • In deep analysis:
    • use part-of-speech (pos) attribute for selecting content words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives)
    • use a pos pattern for extracting action statements (actions)
    • use semantic attribute to associate action sentences

NLDB 2004

template for action sentences
Template for action sentences
  • An action sentence comprises:
    • an object (action), a verb or verb phrase
    • a subject (agent), a noun or pronoun
  • Nouns and verb phrases are syntactically arranged:
    • the subject appears at the head
    • the object appears at the tail

NLDB 2004

template for action sentences cont d
Template for action sentences (cont’d)
    • a modal verb or function word ‘to’ ties the subject and object
  • An action sentence template is defined thus:
    • subject + modal verb/function word ‘to’ + object
    • the template = NP* + VM/TO + V* in CLAWS (Constituent Likelihood Automatic Word Tagging Systems) tag set.

NLDB 2004

template for action sentences cont d11
Template for action sentences (cont’d)
    • NP* matches all proper nouns (subject)
    • VM/TO matches all modal verbs or function word ‘to’
    • V* matches all verbs (object)
  • There are other ways to arrange a subject and an object in a sentence.
    • the subject can be at the head instead of the tail

NLDB 2004

action template an example cont d
Action template: An example (cont’d)
  • In the example, the elements
    • <s> = sentence, <w> = word
  • Element <w> has attributes:
    • id (identity) - identifies the ordinal number of a sentence in a document and the ordinal number of a word in a sentence
    • pos = part-of-speech
    • sem = semantic category

NLDB 2004

action template an example cont d14
Action template: An example (cont’d)
  • pos sequence from id 37.5 to 37.7:
    • is NP1, TO, VVI
    • matches the action template NP* + TO/VM + V*
  • The sentence is marked as an action

NLDB 2004

action template results cont d
Action template: Results (cont’d)
  • Three sets (1,2,3) of minutes from four organisations (A,B,C,D) were processed
    • Rel = relevant actions, Ret = actions retrieved by the tool, RelRet = relevant actions retrieved
    • Recall = RelRet/Rel, Precision = RelRet/Ret
    • Overall precision = 78, overall recall = 62

NLDB 2004

representing extracted information
Representing extracted information
  • Extracted information is represented in a structured format:
    • agenda items, minute items and actions are represented as database objects
    • associations between the objects are captured
    • associations between the objects and the minute documents are captured

NLDB 2004

retrieving actions
Retrieving actions
  • Actions can be retrieved through:
    • browsing
    • query
  • The context of the actions can be retrieved by jumping into the minute document

NLDB 2004

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Minute documents can be automatically structured and efficiently shared.
  • Actions sentences can be automatically extracted from minutes documents.
  • Process decisions can be tracked through actions.

NLDB 2004