Deviance in sport. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDcbo9CuoBM&feature=related Vintage good sport clip. Sportsmanship & Gamesmanship. Footballer injured - Di Canio http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=bS1LuSiRrLI&safe=active Cricket - Sledging
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Deviance in sport http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UDcbo9CuoBM&feature=related Vintage good sport clip
Sportsmanship & Gamesmanship • Footballer injured - Di Canio • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bS1LuSiRrLI&safe=active • Cricket - Sledging • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HnSCeF4RxeA&feature=related • Tennis – Disrupting rhythm • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHELzd4sNPg&feature=related • Cricket – Batsman walks • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gVI8sOtdNk&feature=related • Cricket – Underarm Bowl • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKNQ-crIr50&feature=related • Footballer – Refuses Penalty • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mw6MYwokbhU&feature=related • Football – Goal conceeded • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMQVFNHZ_OM&feature=related
Deviant behaviour • Deviant behaviour is behaviour which goes against society’s general norms and values. This can be criminally deviant, that is, against the law, or morally deviant, whereby no law has been broken but society would generally not consider the behaviour in a positive light.
1. Negative deviancyunderconforming to what is expected • Behaviour that goes against the norm and has a detrimental effect on individuals and on society in general. • In sporting situations this can include violations such as deliberately fouling another player or taking performance enhancing drugs. The main motivation is to win at all costs.
Negative deviance • Occurs when a player, spectator or anybody else involved in sport behaves in a way that knowingly and intentionally breaks the rules and ethics of sport. • Using performance enhancing drugs • Cheating within a contest – deliberately fouling, diving, injury to another player • Being bribed to influence the outcome of a match • Fan violence or hooliganism • Illegal betting on the outcome • Financial irregularities in transferring players • Player violence
Negative deviance • Asif Amir Butt
ICC bans, Mohammad Asif, Mohammad Amir, & Salman Butt • Former captain Butt has received a 10-year ban, five suspended, Asif seven years - two suspended - and Amir five. • The players were accused of spot-fixing in the fourth Test between Pakistan and England at Lord's last August, but have always denied any wrongdoing. • The trio were provisionally suspended in September after the News of the World newspaper reported the deliveries were bowled at specific points in England's innings after a payment was made to businessman Mazhar Majeed. • Information on when no balls would occur in an innings could be exploited by gamblers betting on specialist markets offered by some bookmakers.
Bloodgate – Tom Williams & Dean Richards • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ppwVqvTipU - The bloodgate incident • The doctor at the centre of a fake injury scandal which occurred during a big rugby match has been suspended by the General Medical Council. • Wendy Chapman is alleged to have cut Harlequins wing Tom Williams' lip to hide his use of a fake blood capsule. • The incident occurred in the Heineken Cup quarter-final against Leinster, who won the game 6-5 in April 2009. • Quins have been fined £259,000, their director of rugby Dean Richards received a three-year ban and Williams a four-month ban.
2 – positive devianceOverconforming to what is expected • Behaviour that is outside the norm but with no intention to harm or break the rules. • Athletes are encouraged to behave in ways that would be unacceptable in other spheres of life. This can be classed as over-conformity to the sport ethic.
Positive deviance • An example of positive deviancy may be where an athlete is encouraged to over-train or perform when injured; in other aspects of life we would not encourage someone to cause further damage to his or her health. • Positive deviancy is a slightly more difficult aspect of deviant behaviour and might relate to the motivation for that behaviour. For example, it may be about not letting people down rather than simply wanting to be the best. • Players who are striving to win within the rules and etiquette of the sport, who accidently and unintentionally injures another player.
Relative deviance • Behaviour which is not acceptable in wider society but may be deemed to be acceptable by those involved in a sub-culture. • Sport may be considered such a sub-culture. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gaAX40d3oXo&safe=active • In rugby – punching may be considered ‘acceptable’ although punishable if caught, but eye gouging definitely not acceptable.
Piriweepu • New Zealand scrum-half Piri Weepu has admitted to injuring himself during the All Blacks warm-up prior to the RugbyWorld Cup final against France. • Although the 28-year-old was far from 100% fit he still took to the field against the French playing through the pain barrier to help his country become world champions
Relative deviance • Sport often prefers to deal itself with those who break its rules and etiquette. • The police are increasingly less willing to look the other way when a breach of the law occurs, even if the behaviour in question occurred within a sporting context. • Whether or not the behaviour is viewed within a sporting context is determined by whether or not it breaks the ‘contract to compete’.
Contract to compete • Is an understanding shared by players and all those involved in a sport with regard to their obligation. • In sport you agree to strive against each other to win. • If you do not you are depriving your opponent from their sense of achievement. And cheating the spectators and all those who support you. • If you try to lose to deliberately do not try, you are showing NEGATIVE DEVIANCE.
Contract to compete • If, within the activity, you are trying to hard to win that you break the rules (eg deliberate cheating) or transgress the ethics of the activity through unacceptable physical contact (eg biting) then you are again exhibiting NEGATIVE DEVIANCE • You must allow your opponent the opportunity to win. Taking drugs, bribing, is therefore NEGATIVE DEVIANCE • However, you may use all the tactics, strategy, and skill that you have to prevent your opponent from defeating you, this is RELATIVE DEVIANCE
Allowing fair/free opportunity to win/achieve Within the characteristics of the activity Contract to compete Performers agree to strive against each other to win Within the rules/ethics of the contest
CONTRACT TO COMPETE & RELATIVE DEVIANCE • Are strongly connected • Imply sport exists within its own moral subculture • However, these are being increasingly challenged as sport becomes ever more high profile within media and society. • Questions to consider: • From your own experience give examples of when the contract has been adhered to and when it has been broken • Do you think the contest should have taken place or continued without the cotract being adhered to?
Causes of deviant behaviour • Players lack moral restraint to keep to a code of conduct • Value winning above the loss of respect or punishment • Rewards of winning may be so great that individuals are prepared to cross the line • Deviant behaviour has become more socially acceptable • NGB’s may not punish through fear of the power of Commercial organisations or being taken to court by performers
Violence in sport – between players • 1, A spontaneous outburst • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C3VO-Wh1KCI– Wayne Rooney England • 2, Premeditated and planned action • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_st29mlQwU – Roy Keane v Alf Inge Haaland
Causes of violence between players • Genetic inherited aggressive behaviour • Frustration – brought about by crowd abuse, poor performance (team / individual), disregard for result • Loss of identity – follow actions of crowd rather than own inclinations • Social learning – imitating the actions of a role model who has had aggressive behaviour rewarded in some way. (Press) • ‘enforcers’ players whose role it is to intimidate the opposition
Win at all costs attitude Frustration at referee/score/crowd MORE causes of Violence between players Provocation/sledging Importance of result (finance) Nature of the game (eg ice hockey/rugby are physically robust games) Local rivalry
How do NGB’s control violence? • Support match officials and their decisions • Rugby Football Union have begun handing out large bans and fines to individuals who physically assault a referee and more recently verbal assault of referees has also received severe punishments.Now the common punishment for a player punching a referee or anything similar is a lifetime ban.The laws of the game have also been changed to help this by making it compulsory for any official to report any abuse on them or another official to the union in charge of the fixture. • Punish players post match • Wayne Rooney will miss England's 2012 European Championship group matches after being banned for three matches for his red card against Montenegro. Uefa's disciplinary panel, which described the incident as an "assault", decided on the punishment at a meeting on Thursday. Rooney, 25, was sent off for kicking
How do NGB’s control violence? • Prepared to use post match video evidence or have a citing system • Citing commissioners are appointed for all Heineken Cup and all televised Amlin Challenge Cup matches and are entitled to make a citing complaint against a player for any act of foul play that, in the citing commissioner's opinion, warranted a red card. For such matches, clubs do not have the power to make a citing complaint against a player but may refer incidents to the citing commissioner. • Upholding players with good disciplinary record as role models • Jessica Ennis
How do NGB’s control violence? • Use ‘fair play’ awards effectively • Each season a team gain entry to the Europa League via the fair play league. The league is calculated not just according to red and yellow cards but also on positive play, respect towards opponent and referees, and the behaviour of club officials. • Train officials in player management to defuse situations
How can captains, managers, coaches help to reduce violent acts? • Set a good example • Establish clear codes of conduct / expectations • Criticise or punish players who fail to meet these codes • Praise those who do follow codes • Try to keep players with low flash points from high stress situations • Stress appropriate behaviour in team meetings • Try to avoid over arousal of certain players • Train players to manage their arousal levels • Avoid attitude of winning at all costs.
How is a personal code of conduct established? • Exposure to good role models from a young age • Receiving expectations from parents etc that are inline with rules and ethics of sport • Understand how to control arousal and reduce anger • Know what leads to this and aim to avoid it
Violence among spectators • Watch ‘The Real Football Factory’