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Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism. Lisa Kopf Fall 2012. The Speech Mechanism. Zemlin, W.R. (1998). Pg. 32. Four Speech Systems. Respiratory Phonatory Resonance Articulatory. Respiratory System. Respiration (breathing) Phonation (voicing) Resonance (influencing voice)

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Presentation Transcript
the speech mechanism
The Speech Mechanism

Zemlin, W.R. (1998). Pg. 32.

four speech systems
Four Speech Systems
  • Respiratory
  • Phonatory
  • Resonance
  • Articulatory
slide4

Respiratory System

  • Respiration (breathing)
  • Phonation (voicing)
  • Resonance (influencing voice)
  • Articulation (speech sounds)
slide5

Phonatory System

  • Respiration (breathing)
  • Phonation (voicing)
  • Resonance (influencing voice)
  • Articulation (speech sounds)
slide6

Resonance System

  • Respiration (breathing)
  • Phonation (voicing)
  • Resonance (influencing voice)
  • Articulation (speech sounds)
slide7

Articulatory System

  • Respiration (breathing)
  • Phonation (voicing)
  • Resonance (influencing voice)
  • Articulation (speech sounds)
respiratory system lecture 1

Respiratory SystemLecture 1

Lisa Kopf

Fall 2012

the respiratory system
The Respiratory System

http://www.easyrent.tj/001_lib/002_anatomy_3d/3d_models/human_anatomy/male_systems/Male_Respiratory_3.php

upper airway
Upper Airway

http://www.easyrent.tj/001_lib/002_anatomy_3d/3d_models/human_anatomy/male_systems/Male_Respiratory_3.php

upper airway1
Upper Airway
  • Nasal cavity
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharyngeal cavity
  • Filter, moisten, warm air

http://web.carteret.edu/keoughp/LFreshwater/NEO/blackboard/Pediatric%20Diseases/

respiratory passage
Respiratory Passage

http://academic.kellogg.edu/herbrandsonc/bio201_mckinley/Respiratory%20System.htm

larynx vocal folds
Larynx/Vocal Folds
  • Larynx
    • Houses the vocal folds
  • Vocal folds
    • Valve air
    • Protective mechanism
    • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM) or Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)

http://www.homebusinessandfamilylife.com/larynx.html

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/normal-vocal-cords

trachea
Trachea
  • Cricotracheal ligaments
  • 11-12 cm long
  • 2-2.5 cm diameter
  • 16-20 rings

http://www.naturalhealthschool.com/bronchi_trachea.html

trachea1
Trachea
  • Intratracheal membrane:
    • Connects tracheal rings
    • Allows for movement
  • Trachealis muscle
  • Mucous membrane:
    • Goblet cells
    • Cilia in trachea
  • Carina

http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/respiratorysystem/tracheabronchi/trachea/tracheawall/tutorial.html

http://www.naturalhealthschool.com/bronchi_trachea.html

bronchi
Bronchi
  • Primary/main stem bronchi
  • Secondary/lobar bronchi
  • Tertiary/segmental bronchi

Zemlin, W.R. (1998). Pg. 36.

branches of the bronchi
Branches of the Bronchi
  • Right Primary Bronchus
    • 3 secondary bronchi
    • 10 tertiary bronchi
  • Left Primary Bronchus
    • 2 secondary bronchi
    • 8 tertiary bronchi

Zemlin, W.R. (1998). Pg. 38.

bronchioles
Bronchioles
  • 1 mm or less diameter
  • Terminal bronchioles: communicate directly with the alveoli

http://www.easyrent.tj/001_lib/002_anatomy_3d/3d_models/human_anatomy/male_systems/Male_Respiratory_3.php

alveoli
Alveoli
  • Tiny air-filled sacs
    • 300-600 million in one person’s lungs
    • Clustered together at terminal bronchioles

Hixon, T.J., et al. (2008). Preclinical Speech Science: Anatomy, Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception. Pg. 12.

movie respiratory anatomy
Movie- Respiratory Anatomy

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HiT621PrrO0

http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes6.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nZaSrV6v6k&feature=related

mediastinum
Mediastinum
  • Separates the lungs
  • Mediastinum contains:
    • Heart
    • Part of esophagus
    • Part of trachea
    • Nerve tracts
    • Blood vessels
lungs
Lungs

http://www.anatomy-resources.com/human-anatomy/sh331.htm

pleurae
Pleurae
  • Consists of 2 membraneous layers
    • Visceral pleura
    • Parietal pleura
  • Layers are held together by intrapleural fluid pressure
lung volumes and capacities
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
  • Women: 5 liters
  • Men: 6 liters
lung volumes and capacities1
Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • TV = Tidal Volume
  • VC = Vital Capacity
  • IRV = Inspiratory Reserve Volume
  • ERV = Expiratory Reserve Volume
  • IC = Inspiratory Capacity
  • RV = Reserve Volume
  • FRC = Functional Residual Capacity
  • TLC = Total Lung Capacity

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y9eiVqddVVo&feature=related