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Solutions. Occur in all phases. The solvent does the dissolving. The solute is dissolved. There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solutes. We will focus on aqueous solutions. Ways of Measuring. Molarity = moles of solute Liters of solution

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occur in all phases
Occur in all phases
  • The solvent does the dissolving.
  • The solute is dissolved.
  • There are examples of all types of solvents dissolving all types of solutes.
  • We will focus on aqueous solutions.
ways of measuring
Ways of Measuring
  • Molarity = moles of solute Liters of solution
  • % mass = Mass of solute x 100 Mass of solution
  • Mole fraction of component A cA = NANA + NB
ways of measuring1
Ways of Measuring
  • Molality = moles of solute Kilograms of solvent
  • Molality is abbreviated m
energy of making solutions
Energy of Making Solutions
  • Heat of solution ( DHsoln ) is the energy change for making a solution.
  • Most easily understood if broken into steps.
  • 1.Break apart solvent
  • 2.Break apart solute
  • 3. Mixing solvent and solute
1 break apart solvent
1. Break apart Solvent
  • Have to overcome attractive forces. DH1 >0

2. Break apart Solute.

  • Have to overcome attractive forces. DH2 >0
3 mixing solvent and solute
3. Mixing solvent and solute
  • DH3 depends on what you are mixing.
  • Molecules can attract each other DH3 is large and negative.
  • Molecules can’t attract- DH3 issmall and negative.
  • This explains the rule “Like dissolves Like”
slide8

Solute and Solvent

DH3

DH2

Solvent

DH1

DH3

Solution

Solution

  • Size of DH3 determines whether a solution will form

Energy

Reactants

types of solvent and solutes
Types of Solvent and solutes
  • If DHsoln is small and positive, a solution will still form because of entropy.
  • There are many more ways for them to become mixed than there is for them to stay separate.
structure and solubility
Structure and Solubility
  • Water soluble molecules must have dipole moments -polar bonds.
  • To be soluble in non polar solvents the molecules must be non polar.
slide11

O-

P

O-

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

O-

CH2

CH2

CH2

Soap
  • Hydrophobic non-polar end
slide12

O-

P

O-

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

O-

CH2

CH2

CH2

Soap
  • Hydrophilic polar end
slide13
A drop of grease in water
  • Grease is non-polar
  • Water is polar
  • Soap lets you dissolve the non-polar in the polar.
slide16
Water molecules can surround and dissolve grease.
  • Helps get grease out of your way.
pressure effects
Pressure effects
  • Changing the pressure doesn’t effect the amount of solid or liquid that dissolves
  • They are incompressible.
  • It does effect gases.
dissolving gases
Dissolving Gases
  • Pressure effects the amount of gas that can dissolve in a liquid.
  • The dissolved gas is at equilibrium with the gas above the liquid.
slide20
If you increase the pressure the gas molecules dissolve faster.
  • The equilibrium is disturbed.
slide21
The system reaches a new equilibrium with more gas dissolved.
  • Henry’s Law.

P= kC

Pressure = constant x Concentration of gas

temperature effects
Temperature Effects
  • Increased temperature increases the rate at which a solid dissolves.
  • We can’t predict whether it will increase the amount of solid that dissolves.
  • We must read it from a graph of experimental data.
slide23

100

40

60

80

20

gases are predictable
Gases are predictable
  • As temperature increases, solubility decreases. Why…
  • Gas molecules can move fast enough to escape.
vapor pressure of solutions
Vapor Pressure of Solutions
  • A nonvolatile solvent lowers the vapor pressure of the solution.
  • The molecules of the solventmust overcome the force of both the other solvent molecules and the solute molecules.
raoult s law
Raoult’s Law:
  • Psoln = csolvent x Psolvent
  • Vapor pressure of the solution = mole fraction of solvent x vapor pressure of the pure solvent
  • Applies only to an ideal solution where the solute doesn’t contribute to the vapor pressure.
slide29
The water condenses faster in the solution so it should all end up in that beaker.

Aqueous Solution

Pure water

osmotic pressure p
Osmotic Pressure (p)
  • Is also a colligative property
  • Is equal to MRT (molarity x r x Kelvin)
  • Is the pressure just sufficient to prevent osmosis
review question
Review Question
  • The vapor pressure of ethanol at 20oC is 39.98 mm Hg.
  • What is the vapor pressure of ethanol in a solution containing 5.0% by mass of iodine.
  • (assume 100g of solution and find c)
colligative properties
Colligative Properties
  • Because dissolved particles affect vapor pressure - they affect phase changes.
  • Colligative properties depend only on the number - not the kind of solute particles present
  • Useful for determining molar mass
boiling point elevation
Boiling point Elevation
  • Because a non-volatile solute lowers the vapor pressure it raises the boiling point.
  • The equation is: DT = Kbmsolute
  • DT is the change in the boiling point
  • Kb is a constant determined by the solvent.
  • msolute is the molality of the solute
freezing point depression
Freezing point Depression
  • Because a non-volatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solution it lowers the freezing point.
  • The equation is: DT = Kfmsolute
  • DT is the change in the freezing point
  • Kf is a constant determined by the solvent
  • msolute is the molality of the solute
slide35

1 atm

Vapor Pressure of pure water

Vapor Pressure of solution

slide36

1 atm

Freezing and boiling points of water

slide37

1 atm

Freezing and boiling points of solution

slide38

1 atm

DTb

DTf

electrolytes in solution
Electrolytes in solution
  • Since colligative properties only depend on the number of molecules.
  • Ionic compounds should have a bigger effect.
  • When they dissolve they dissociate.
  • Individual Na and Cl ions fall apart.
  • 1 mole of NaCl makes 2 moles of ions.
  • 1mole Al(NO3)3 makes 4 moles ions.
slide40
Electrolytes have a bigger impact on on melting and freezing points per mole because they make more pieces.
  • Relationship is expressed using the van’t Hoff factor i

i = Moles of particles in solution

Moles of solute dissolved

  • The expected value can be determined from the formula.
slide41
The actual value is usually less because
  • At any given instant some of the ions in solution will be paired.
  • Ion pairing increases with concentration.
  • i decreases with ion concentration.
  • We can change our formulas to

DT = iKm

ideal solutions
Ideal solutions
  • Liquid-liquid solutions where both are volatile.
  • Modify Raoult’s Law to
  • Ptotal= PA + PB = cAPA0 + cAPB0
  • Ptotal= vapor pressure of mixture
  • PA0= vapor pressure of pure A
  • If this equation works then the solution is ideal.
  • Solvent and solute are alike.
deviations
Deviations
  • If Solvent has a strong affinity for solute (H bonding).
  • Lowers solvents ability to escape.
  • Lower vapor pressure than expected.
  • Negative deviation from Raoult’s law.
  • DHsoln is large and negative exothermic.
  • Endothermic DHsoln indicates positive deviation.