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Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region by R. Bornstein* , H. Taha, R. Balmori, SJSU S. Dupont, J. Ching, RTP/EPA/NOAA A. Martilli, UBC S. Stetson, SWS, Inc. D. Byun, U of Houston S. Burian, U of Utah *pblmodel@hotmail.com 27 th NATO/CCMS/ITM Meeting

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slide1

Application of the urbanized MM5 to the Houston-Galveston region

by

R. Bornstein*, H. Taha, R. Balmori, SJSU

S. Dupont, J. Ching, RTP/EPA/NOAA

A. Martilli, UBC

S. Stetson, SWS, Inc.

D. Byun, U of Houston

S. Burian, U of Utah

*pblmodel@hotmail.com

27th NATO/CCMS/ITM Meeting

Banff, Alberta, Canada

October 2004

outline
OUTLINE
  • PROJECT GOALS
  • uMM5 CONFIGURATION
  • SYNOPTIC SUMMARY: 700 MB & SFC
  • DOMAIN 1: MM5 WINDS VS NWS
    • MM5 WINDS (MESO CONVENTION)
      • FULL BARB = 1 M/S
      • FLAG = 5 M/S
  • DOMAINS 2-4: MM5 WINDs
  • DOMAIN 5: uMM5 TEMPs & UHIs
  • CONCLUSION
slide3

Project Summary:

  • Overall: Evaluate impacts of de- & re-forestation on Houston O3 levels (Byun, USFS)
  • SIPEpisode: Aug-Sept Texas2000 in Houston
  • MetModel: EPA uMM5 (Martilli, Dupont, Ching)
  • Improved: uMM5 input (Burian, Stetson)
  • Machine: SJSU 96 CPU cluster (Balmori)
  • Evaluate (Taha):
    • uMM5 vs. MM5 performance
    • uMM5 sensitivity to LU/LC changes
slide4

5-domain configuration, D5 is “urbanized”

Resolution: 108, 36, 12, 4, 1 km

Grid dimensions(excluding surface):

43×53×28, 55×55×28, 100×100×28,

136×151×28, 133×141×48.

urbanization techniques
Urbanization Techniques
  • Urbanize: surface, SBL, & PBL momentum,

thermo, & TKE Eqs

  • Allows prediction within UCL
  • From vegetation canopy-model of Yamada (1982)
  • Veg parameters replaced with urban (GIS/RS) terms
    • Brown and Williams 1998
    • Masson 2000
    • Sievers 2001
    • Martilli et al. 2001 (in TVM)
    • Dupont et al. 2003 (in MM5)
    • LLNL 2004
slide8

uMM5 input + as f (x, y) in D-05

(from Burian, Stetson, USFS)

  • land use (38 categories)
  • roughness elements
  • anthropogenic heat as f (t)
  • vegetation and building heights
  • paved surface fractions
  • drag-force coefficients for buildings & vegy
  • building height-to-width, wall-to-plan,

& impervious-area ratios

  • building frontal, building plan, & and rooftop

area-densities

  • vegetation top- and area-densities
  • ε, cρ, α, etc. of walls and roofs
slide11

Modeled increases in vegetation cover (urban max)

Values are 0.1 of those in previous chart

mm5 vs umm5 preview of results
MM5 vs. uMM5: Preview of Results
  • uMM5 takes longer than MM5
    • with 1-CPU: 8 times longer
    • with 96-CPU: only 3 times longer
    • each-day of our uMM5 simulation took
      • 16.0 days with 1-CPU
      • 4.5 hours with 96-CPU
  • uMM5 gives better:

TKE, UHIs, & winds

synoptic preview
Synoptic Preview
  • Pre-episode day
    • 700 hPa: flow NE of Houston was from SE
    • Sfc: Sea-breeze frontal formation
  • Episode day
    • 700 hPa: flow now from NE 

opposition to onshore sea-breeze flow

    • Sfc: offshore cold-core low forms 

along-shore (NE to SW) coastal-flow 

ozone episode

  • NWS vs. MM5
    • NWS charts show only subtle changes
    • MM5 provides the details
1200 utc 0700 dst 24 aug
1200 UTC (0700 DST) 24 AUG
  • 700 mb
  • Pre-episode AM
  • SE flow NE of Houston
1200 utc 0700 dst 25 aug
1200 UTC (0700 DST) 25 AUG
  • 700 mb
  • Episode AM
  • Opposing NE flow NE of Houston
  • Will cause con with sfc SB V
1200 utc 0700 dst 25 aug1
1200 UTC (0700 DST) 25 AUG
  • Sfc chart
  • Episode AM
  • Not much detail
  • Similar to day b/f & after
mm5 results preview
MM5 results: Preview
  • Domain 1:
    • Captures NWS synoptic features (change in 700 hPa flow-direction NE of Houston)
    • Indicates off-shore feature (cold-core L) not on NWS charts
  • Domains 2-4: shows details of off-shore L
  • Domain: 5: shows UHI effects
1 km domain end of daytime uhi 8 pm 21 aug
1 km Domain: end of daytime UHI (8 PM 21 Aug)
  • Upper L: MM5
  • Upper R: uMM5
  • Lower L: uMM5-MM5
  • uMM5 1.5 K warmer (stronger UHI)
  • Blob is LU/LC error
1km domain end of night uhi 9 am 22 aug
1km Domain: end of night UHI: 9 AM 22 Aug
  • Upper L: MM5
  • Upper R: uMM5
  • Lower L: MM5-uMM5
  • uMM5 1.5 K cooler (weaker UHI)
explanation of umm5 uhi uci
Explanation of uMM5 UHI & UCI
  • Wet soil TI > urban TI > dry soil TI
  • Urban an area surrounded by wet soil thus has
    • Daytime UHI (as urban area warms faster than soil)
    • Nighttime UCI (as urban area cools faster than soil)
  • Reverse true with dry rural soil
  • Current results thus consistent with wet rural soil (as expected) around Houston, as uMM5 produced daytime warming & nighttime cooling over urban Houston
ongoing future efforts
Ongoing & future efforts
  • Additional analysis of current simulation results
  • Additional simulations on new 106 CPU cluster
  • Use planned 2005-6 Houston field-study (?) data to determine atm and (GIS/RS) urban parameters
domain 1 7 am 24 aug
Domain 1: 7 AM 24 AUG
  • 700 mb
  • Pre-episode
  • Weak off- shore L (not in NWS)
  • Weak NE flow NE of city
domain 1 0700 dst 25 aug
Domain 1: 0700 DST 25 AUG
  • 700 mb
  • Episode AM
  • Stronger off-shore L
  • Stronger NE ff NE of city
  • Will cause con with SB ff
domain 1 1800 dst 23 aug
Domain 1: 1800 DST 23 AUG
  • Sfc chart
  • Pre-episode
  • On-shore SB
  • Not much difference at same time on next 2 days
  • Need to see inner domains