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Earth Systems 3209. Reference: Chapters 21; Appendix A & B. Unit: 5 Earth’s Resources. Unit 5: Topic 3.5 . Extracting and Refining Petroleum. Focus on . . . identifying and describing the two main means of extracting petroleum from Earth.

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slide1

Earth Systems 3209

Reference:

Chapters 21; Appendix A & B

Unit: 5Earth’s Resources

slide2

Unit 5: Topic 3.5

Extracting and Refining Petroleum

Focus on . . .

  • identifying and describing the two main means of extracting petroleum from Earth.
  • identifying and describing the methods of refining petroleum.
  • using a distillation column to help explain this process.
extracting petroleum from earth
Extracting Petroleum from Earth
  • The two main means of extracting petroleum from Earth include:
    • Drilling
    • Surface Extraction (open pit mining)
extracting petroleum from earth1
Extracting Petroleum from Earth

1) Drilling

  • Drilling can take place on land, ice, or water.
  • A proportion of petroleum in a trap is under natural pressure and therefore, will be released naturally when tapped by a drill.
  • Another proportion of petroleum will remain in the trap due to loss of pressure.
  • Thus, other techniques will be required to get the remaining oil from the trap. For example pumping in water, gas and filling the reservoir.
extracting petroleum from earth2
Extracting Petroleum from Earth
  • Surface Extraction (open pit mining)
  • Alberta oil sands (tar sands) is an examplewhere petroleum is extracted directly fromthe surface by open-pit mining.
  • The petroleum migrated towards the surfaceand volatiles (e.g. water) were lost to the atmosphere.
  • This increased viscosity (i.e. thickness) and prevented the oil from spreading out and/or dissipating. As a result it accumulated in the sediment.
extracting petroleum from earth3
Extracting Petroleum from Earth
  • Surface Extraction (open pit mining)
  • The reservoir consisted of loose (unconsolidated) sediment that exhibited high porosity and permeability, but no cap rock.
  • In some instances, steam is injected directly into the tar sands to mobilize the hydrocarbons, which are then recovered from pumps much like conventional crude oil.
  • Fort McMurray’s Athabasca oil sands
methods of refining petroleum
Methods of Refining Petroleum

Include:

  • Distillation
    • Crude oil contains hundreds of different types of hydrocarbons all mixed together.
    • Different hydrocarbon chain lengths all have progressively higher boiling points, so they can all be separated by distillation (heating).
methods of refining petroleum1
Methods of Refining Petroleum
  • Once petroleum is extracted from the sub-surface and is de-salted and de-watered, it enters a distillation column.
  • Heat is added to the column to separate the petroleum into fractions based on boiling points (cracking).
  • The bottom fraction is removed to another column for further separation.
methods of refining petroleum2
Methods of Refining Petroleum

Include:

  • Cracking
    • Cracking processes breaks down heavier hydrocarbon molecules (high boiling point) into lighter products such as petrol and diesel. This is done by catalytic cracking and thermal cracking.
    • “Catalytic cracking" is the process used to break crude oil down into gasoline, kerosene, and fuel oils.
    • “Thermal cracking” is a process in which hydrocarbons such as crude oil are subjected to high heat in order to extract usable components during the cracking process.
methods of refining petroleum3
Methods of Refining Petroleum

Include:

  • Reforming
    • Involved the conversion of straight chain hydrocarbons into branched chain hydrocarbons such as gasoline.
    • Involves heat, pressure, and the use of catalysts (speed up reaction rates) to reform different hydrocarbon compounds.
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Example 1:

Which applies to the vapours at the top of thedistillation column?

A) long chained molecules with a high boiling point

B) short chained molecules with a high boiling point

C) short chained molecules with a low boiling point

D) long chained molecules with a low boiling point

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Example 2:

  • Which is a refining method and involves the use of heat, pressure, and catalysts?
  • A) cracking
  • B) floatation
  • C) reforming
  • D) remote sensing
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Your Turn . . .

Take the time and complete the following questions . . .(Solutions to follow)

Questions:

A

C

B

D

At which location in the distillation column would you collect the lowest boiling point hydrocarbons?

(A) A (C) C

(B) B (D) D

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Solutions . . .

Questions:

At which location in the distillation column would you collect the lowest boiling point hydrocarbons?

(A) A (C) C

(B) B (D) D

A

C

B

D

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Summary . . .

Overview of Points covered:

Petroleum can be extracted by two methods:

Drilling (beneath the surface)

Open Pit Mining (near the surface)

Petroleum can be refined using the following Methods:

Distillation

Cracking

Reforming