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Cooking Methods
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  1. Cooking Methods Chapter 9

  2. Heating and Cooking There are three types of energy central to all cooking: Conduction Convection Radiation

  3. Conduction • This is heat transfer by direct contact • Example: Cooking a pancake in a skillet

  4. Convection • This is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid • Warm air that rises forces the cool air to fall then displaced back to the top when it heats up and the process is continuous

  5. Radiation • This type of heat transfer method uses infrared rays to strike and warm objects. • Example the boiler heats the surface of food by radiation

  6. How does heat affect food? • Brings out flavor and aroma • Can change the color • Changes the texture

  7. Conventional Cooking Techniques • Two different types 1. Moist heat cooking: foods cooked in hot liquid or steam 2. Dry heat cooking: foods cooked uncovered without added liquid or fat

  8. Moist Heat Cooking • Boiling • Simmering • Steaming • Pressure Cooking

  9. Boiling • Cooking in a liquid that reached boiling point, when the liquid is producing large bubbles that rise to the surface and break. • Nutrient loss is very high when using this method • Suitable for pasta and corn on the cob

  10. Simmering • When a liquid rises gently and just begins to break the surface • To simmer foods we generally bring water to a boil and then reduce the heat so that food will simmer • More foods can be simmered than boiled

  11. SPECIAL SIMMERING TECHNIQUES • Stewing: involves covering small pieces of food with liquid and covering until done • Poaching: involves simmering whole foods such as eggs or fruit

  12. Steaming • A method of cooking foods over but not in boiling water • Many foods can be steamed • Also it helps them retain their shape, color, flavor, and nutrients

  13. Pressure Cooking • This cooks food in steam under pressure and cause temps. Rise above boiling and in turn cooks food faster • Best to use on foods that take a long time to cook • EX. Dry beans, soups, & non tender cuts of meat

  14. Dry Heat Methods • Roasting & Baking • Broiling • Pan-Broiling

  15. Roasting and Baking • Involve foods being cooked in either a conventional or convection oven • Roasting usually involves cooking large tender cuts of meat • Baking is the term used for cooking breads, cookies, and casseroles

  16. Broiling • Refers to food under direct heat • Works well with tender cuts of meat • Cooks quickly

  17. Pan-broiling • Stove-top method of dry heat cooking. • Includes foods such as hamburgers and tender cuts of steak

  18. Frying • Involves cooking food in oil or solid fat • Different types * Sautéing * Pan-frying * Deep-fat frying

  19. Sautéing • This is to brown or cook foods in a skillet with a small amount of fat. • Low to medium heat is used

  20. Pan-Frying • Similar to sautéing but usually involves large pieces of meat • Food may need to be turned several times during cooking process

  21. Deep-Fat Frying • AKA French Frying • Food is immersed in hot fat and cooked until done. • Note that fat had a “Smoke Point” this is the temperature that fat begins to break down and smoke. This means the oil is no longer good for cooking.

  22. Combo Methods • Combining dry heat with moist heat cooking • Braising • Stir-frying

  23. Braising • This combines frying and then simmering to tenderize food and enhance flavor. • Often used for less tender cuts of meat

  24. Stir Frying • Also a combo of frying and moist heat cooking • Small pieces of meat are cooked is a small amount of oil. Liquid is added throughout this process. • A wok is traditionally used