“Allen Pinkerton: Cooper, Abolitionist, Private Eye,Spy, Feminist, & Savior of a President” Greg Roth Associate Professor Criminal Justice Tuesday, November 05, 2013
Alan Pinkerton • Born: August 25, 1819 • Glasgow, Scotland • Died: July 01, 1884 • Chicago, IL
William Pinkerton – father http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/pinkerton/1.html • Police Sergeant • Glasgow Scotland • Mother – Islabell • Father killed during political raid in city square
Alan Pinkerton Left home – runner for pattern maker Apprentice – McCauley Cooperage Works
Joined Chartist movement • The People’s Charter (1838) • William Lovett • London Working Men’s Association
Chartistmovement THE SIX POINTS OF THE CHARTER1. A vote for every man twenty one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for crime. 2. The ballot 3. No property qualification for members of Parliament 4. Payment of members, thus enabling an honest tradesman, working man, or other person, to serve a constituency http://www.chartists.net/The-six-points.htm
Chartistmovement 5. Equal constituencies securing the same amount of representation 6. Annual Parliaments, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation http://www.chartists.net/The-six-points.htm
Constabulary underground • ID’dsome of the most vocal and active members of Chartist • Including Pinkerton • Arrest warrant! • Oh the irony?
Married • Joan Carfraeof Edinburgh • March 13, 1842 • No honeymoon! Soldiers to arrest • Next morning off to Quebec
Rocky road to America Ship in storm – off course Rammed on rocks – Nova Scotia All possessions lost – few silver pieces in Allen’s vest pocket http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/pinkerton/1.html
Survived to be robbed Swam to shore Collapsed on beach Robbed by Indians – wedding ring http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/pinkerton/1.html
Change of destination • Ship picked up survivors • Decided to go to America after hearing about fast growing Chicago • Good place for a barrel maker http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/pinkerton/1.html
Fellow Scotsmen • From Detroit to Chicago • Heard of barrelmaker from fellow Scotsmen – Lill’s Brewery • Downtown Chicago
Moving on • Heard of Dundee – Scottish town 40 miles • Local farmers complaining of barrel prices out of Chicago • “Pinkerton’s One and Original Cooperage of Dundee”
Growth and Costs Business grew faster than expected Wanted to cut costs of raw materials Not pay for poles for barrel hoops, natural resource available
[Is]Land of Opportunity Raw materials - island - Fox River Island thought uninhabited Pinkerton notice grass and brush bent – path Followed path – found campsite
The law Pinkerton knew counterfeiting in area Told Sheriff
America Cooper Abolitionist
Cooper in America • Abolitionist • friend - JohnBrown • Underground Railroad
Detective? • Accident! • After Island adventure • Asked to investigate counterfeiting by private businessmen
Chicago PD • PD - 1847 • 1st detective - 1849 • Solved major cases for railroads
Chicago PD When wanted to start own agency approached Rock Island and Illinois Central railroad President George B. McClelland
Pinkerton’s Agency Opened 1st office – Chicago (80 Washington St.) - 1850 Solved many cases involving murders and thefts Much press
Pinkerton’s Agency Pinkerton created logo to publicize agency “We Never Sleep” Pinkerton became known as “the Eye” “Private Eye”
Pinkerton Code Accept no bribes Never compromise with criminals Partner with local law enforcement agencies Refuse divorce cases or cases that initiate scandals Turn down reward money (Agents were well paid) Never raise fees without the client’s pre-knowledge Keep clients apprised on an on-going basis
Pinkerton Philosophy Those who commit crimes have a need to talk about it. Provide someone for them to talk to –operative! Intelligence – situation and person VERY SUCCESSFUL!
Detectives? • McClelland brings Pinkerton to Washington to find spies • Gives Pinkerton specific assignment
Detectives? • Assignment - Watch female • Rose O’neal Greenhow • Who ends up in jail? • Famous spy? • Nope!
Rose O’Neal Greenhow Beautiful widow (Dr. Robert Greenhow) Grande Dame of Washington society The queen of the Democratic administration Cherished advisor to the President Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler
Rose O’Neal Greenhow Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler • 398 West 16th St. • Washington City • 4 blks from White House • 1856 - 1860 • Visitor! At least once a week & always at night (sometimes until well past midnight)
Rose O’Neal Greenhow • Visitor – James Buchanan – President • 1845 Buchanan Sec. of State – Rose’s late husband served under him
Rose O’Neal Greenhow • Describe in newspapers as “the most persuasive woman in Washington”, “a woman of almost irresistible seduction powers” that would do anythingto get ahead. • Did she seduce the President?
Detectives? August 22, 1861 • Pinkerton & two Operatives on the case! • Surveil! 398 West 16th St. • Two story, 1st floor ½ story up • Night, pouring rain • Pinkerton removes shoes, held up to window my operatives.
Detectives? Tension builds! • Pinkerton & two Operatives on the case! • Every time person passes… • Observe…
Detectives? Pinkertonobserves Greenhow and military officer Military officer opens maps Discusses them with Greenhow – off points out particular points and positions Pinkerton recognizes maps – fortifications in and around Washington
Detectives? Maps folded Two leave room (hand-in-hand?) Return in about 1 hour
Detectives? • Pinkerton hears enough to believe off betraying country • Follow…pursuit…! Off. runs…to Provost-Marshal Station…off. disappears inside • 4 soldiers with bayonets rush out, grab Pinkerton, escort him to guardhouse • Arrest!
Detectives? Taken to see Captain of the Guard! Who is it? Pinkerton gives name E. J. Allen Refuses to answer any other questions
Detectives? Return to cell Bribes guard – message to Thomas Scott(war department) Pinkertonbefore Captain – “The secretary of war has been informed of your arrest, and you will be conducted to him at once, and then we shall see if you will remain silent any longer.”
Detectives? August 23, 1861 • At least not until later! • Pinkerton arrests Greenhow • Placed under “house arrest” • Doesn’t work!
Detectives? • Search of house finds… • Burned papers of ciphered military info • Drawings of fortifications • Bundle – 13 steamy letters to “H”
Excerpts from 4 letters Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler “For the last few days every movement and act of mine have been watched with Hawk-eyed vigilance. For your sake more than my own I have been compelled to be cautious. But tomorrow at 10 a.m. I will see you at all hazards. H.”
“H” Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler “You know I love you – and will sacrifice anything. I have feared bringing you into trouble – for I repeat to you that spies are put upon me, but I will try to elude them tonight, and once more we can have a happy hour in spite of fate. H.”
“H” Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler “We are…considering the Pacific Railroad Bill…I will not fail tonight, and will bring you the thing of which we spoke last night. Bless you always. H.”
“H” Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler “You know that I do love you. I am suffering this morning, in fact I am sick physically and mentally, and know nothing that would soothe me so much as an hourwith you. And tonight, at whatever cost, I will see you. Yours, H.”
“H” Stealing Secrets – How a Few Daring Women Deceived Generals, Impacted Battles, and Altered the Course of the Civil War, H. Donald Winkler • “H” believed to be Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts • Chairman – Senate Military Affairs Committee!
The “Picnic Battle” • Bull-Run (Creek) – Manassas (Virginia) – July 1861 • North expecting quick victory • Wilson, senators, representatives, newspaper reporters, and members of Washington society rode out to see victory • Wilson brought sandwiches for soldiers http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/VP_Henry_Wilson.htm
The “Picnic Battle” • Bull-Run (Creek) – Manassas (Virginia) – July 1861 • Confederates routed Union • Wilson’s carriage was crushed
“H” Also involved in Credit Mobilier(railroad stock scandal) Purchased stock in wife’s name, later returned it Cleared of wrong doing Became 18th Vice-president (Grant)