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Dr U. Mazarura, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe PowerPoint Presentation
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Dr U. Mazarura, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe

Dr U. Mazarura, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe

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Dr U. Mazarura, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe

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  1. Understanding the challenges associated with replacing Methyl Bromide: tobacco, horticulture and grain storage industries. Dr U. Mazarura, Department of Crop Science, University of Zimbabwe

  2. Alternatives Tobacco • metam sodium • 1.3.D and chloropicrin • 1.3.D and MITC • Burning • Float tray system Grain • Phosphine (aluminum phosphide/magnesium phosphide) • Contact insecticide: pirimiphos methyl with permethrin (actellic super ) Cut Flowers • Steam • Chemicals as for tobacco

  3. Current consumption • Minimal • Increases QPS usage (about 21 tons)

  4. However, Sustainability challenges (Results from 2011 growers survey) • Only11% used the floating tray system although 61% had heard about the technology and could not use it citing the: • cost (48%) • substrate availability problems, • lack of know how (39%) • An alarming 74 % sterilized their seedbed by burning wood

  5. Challenges are underpinned by: • Lack of information on alternatives • An increase in the grower base (e.g. Zim <26 000 in 2004 to >60 000 in 2013). • Agro companies unsure of the “alternatives” market • Have maintained traditional nematicides or insecticides. • A good number were supplementary chemicals e.g. nematicitdes

  6. Challenges are underpinned by: • Work and registration of alternatives viewed as risky by traditional players because of market uncertainties • In grain phosphine application expensive –sheets, safety equipment • Resistance build up is an issue • Worker training on safe handling and usage a continual burden

  7. Challenges are underpinned by: • Single problematic alternative in grain: uncertainties • Needs longer exposure. • Insect resistance • Poor penetration in bulk storage • Less effective on eggs • For grain IPM could be the answer of other technologies

  8. Solutions • Need for training in technology • Need for substrate to be available on farm • Hence need for use of farm waste • Need for documents written for farmer: e.g. technical manuals • IPM concept needed by farmers • Strengthening poor regulations e.g. in Zim Min. of agric does not know what Min. of environment is doing.

  9. Solutions • Main stream alternatives into curricula of schools, colleges, universities • Build capacity of regulatory personnel