PEI Follow-UpSessions Elementary Teachers
Agenda • Questions/concerns • Review Concept Attainment • Sharing • Three Step Interview connected to Concept Attainment • Home
Last Session • We played with Framing Questions -- an instructional skill -- we also played with Place Mat, Numbered Heads, Round Robin, One Stray Rest Stay, Brainstorming, Concept Attainment, Fish Bone Diagrams, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Inductive and Deductive Thinking
Concept Attainment Jerome Bruner’s Inductive thinking strategy
How many of you have experienced Concept Attainment or applied it in the classroom?
All of you have experienced it, the process is what your parents used when you were young … to ‘teach’ you all those ‘concepts’ like dog and truck etc.
Have you played this game? • I am going on a trip and I can take a carrot but I cannot take a can; I can take a beet but I cannot take a bottle …
Side A Side B
What level of thinking and what type of thinking does Concept Attainment demand? • Level of thinking: Analysis • Type of thinking: Inductive • We see this with this objective: The students will demonstrate they understand the difference between weather and climate. • Can you sense the relationship between Concept Attainment and Venn Diagrams?
Climate, Weather and Concept Attainment • The high temperature today will be 14 degrees • Over the last decade the ice-cap has been receding. • Yesterday we had a tornado. • Each year the monsoons come in the spring. • I have never seen it snow like that before. • We have four seasons every year: spring, summer, winter, and fall.
Open and Closed-Ended ?’s • What is your name? • Please explain how photosynthesis works? • What are the parts of a bunsen burner? • Why do you think Tuck did not drink the water?
Inductive thinking refers to Classifying -- understanding how things in a group are the same…pushes the analysis level of thinking
Deductive thinking refers to Finding an answer … the scientific method is an example, we form a hypothesis and then find an answer.
What is a concept? • Anything that has a label • …and has a definition • …and two or more examples that fit into that definition that have the same attributes that differentiate them from those things that don’t • NOTE: that means most proper nouns are not examples of concepts. (E.G., What do all the David’s or Mary’s have in common that differentiate them from the Bob’s or Helen’s?)
Question • Can you name one thing that is not an example of a concept? • …say eyebrow or wheelbarrow or love or democracy or infinity or photosynthesis or transportation or spaceship or addition or factor or realism or history or teddy bear or line or shape or triangle or media or …
Three Phases of Concept Attainment • PHASE I: Share the focus statement and the data set • Phase II: Share their hypotheses and their thinking • Phase III: Application of the learning
Three Types of Concepts • Conjunctive - with common attributes -- common juncture • Dysjunctive - without common attributes • Relational - meaning comes out of the context for comparison
Chair Car Nose Book Planet Cloud Triangle Rainbow Rough Smooth Smart Long Love Democracy Symbolism Motivation Conjunctive and Not Conjunctive
Rough Smooth Smart Long Steep Rich Warm Opposite Planet Could Triangle Rainbow Love Democracy Symbolism Motivation Relational and Not Relational
Symbolism Democracy Effective Motivating Love (tricky) ‘Strike’ in baseball Beautiful Technology Planet Could Triangle Rainbow Computer Home run (in baseball) Sweet Opaque Dysjunctive and Not Dysjunctive
Focus on civil rights 1. In South Africa policy prohibited blacks from living in areas designated as ‘white only’ areas. 2. In Canada, the First Nation People were denied access to most ‘classy’ cafes. 3. In Germany, during WW Two, Jews were required by law to have travel passes in order to move about their community 4. In North America, it is not unusual to have all white juries hear the case of a non-white person.
civil rights continued 5. In Canada, during WW II, legislation was passed that sent Japanese Canadians to special camps. They had to leave behind virtually all their possessions. German and Italian Canadians did not have to move to those camps. 6. In some states in the United States, if a black killed a white person they were always found guilty. If a white killed a black, they were always found innocent. 7. In the United States, blacks were obliged by law to sit at the back of the bus. 8. In England, three people were killed by a bomb planted by the IRA
civil rights testers • In North America, immigrant children were teased on the playground • As set out in legislation, in some states, and countries, women are not allowed to terminate a pregnancy. • In Canada, women did not have the right to vote. • In Malaysia, if your hair was longer than a certain length (as shown by pictures in the banks) you would not be served until everyone else in the bank was served. • In Canada, we have created laws that support men and women being paid the same wage if they do the same job.
Data Set: Ways of Convincing • The purpose of the test is to measure what you know; cheating defeats the purpose of the test. You should not cheat. • Honesty is the best policy. Therefore you should not cheat. • Let’s get a kitten for Granny. Pets help lower blood pressure in older people. • Everyone in the family has gone to college; you must go to college.
Data Set: Ways of Convincing • Studies show that people manage money better as adults when they have had allowances as children. I should get an allowance. • If you loved me you would give me an allowance. • There are fewer fatal accidents since the speed limit was reduced. The speed limit should stay reduced. • The kitten has been abandoned. It’ll starve if we don’t bring it inside.
Data Set: Ways of Convincing • Butter is high in cholesterol. As a cardiac patient, you shouldn’t use it. • You have a moral obligation to take this staff development course on AIDS. If you don’t, parents will think you are irresponsible. You should take this course. • College graduates have a higher average lifetime income than non-graduates. You should go to college if you want to earn more. • How can you eat meat? That is so sickening! Yuck, would you eat your pet? You should be a vegetarian.
Ways to Convince: Testers • I’m voting for Joe Smith, he is so good looking and he seems like he would treat people with respect. • Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. • Buckle up for safety. • Buckle up, it is the law. • Buckle up, I’m not taking care of you if you get injured.
Ways to Convince: Testers • Life insurance will provide your family with support if you die. • Coke is it. • You Deserve a Break! (McDonalds) • Be true to yourself. • I’m voting for Jessica; she has integrity and has worked as a city counselor effectively for eight years.
What the ODD’s have in common… • They involve reasoning -- it deals with principles and criteria of validity; it is analytic, deductive. • So with a partner, group the EVEN examples and the TESTERS that are EVEN into other ways of convincing others.
Categories for Convincing • Ethos - ethics, morality (Black & Blue Hat) • Pathos - emotions feelings (Red Hat) • Logos - logic facts (White Hat) Comment: In a debate, you employ one or more of these to argue pro or con an issue.
Two Types of ConceptsBlumer, 1954 • Definitive (like conjunctive in Bruner’s) • Means we have clarity - no confusion (chair, truck) • Sensitizing (like relational and dysjunctive in Bruner’s) • Means we have a lack of clarity and we work at getting increasing clarity but usually never really get absolute clarity (justice, love)
Two Ways to Present the Data Set • Focused Gambling -- present one YES and one NO example at a time • Simultaneous Scanning -- the students see all the data set at once • Note: the more print, the more likely you show one at a time -- especially for younger kids.
Concept Attainment: Focused Gambling • Angry Trembling • Excited Clenching fists • Happy Laughing • Confused Yelling • Annoyed Daydreaming • Embarrassed Talking out
Testers (focused gambling) • Hiding • Nail biting • Afraid • Relaxed • Relaxing • Upset stomach • Confident
Precious junk Gregarious hermit Dangerous friend Slowly raced Openly camouflaged Eternal instant Naïve wisdom Valuable jewelry Old man Quickly ran Beautiful butterfly Closed door Dangerous thoughts Exquisite joy Concept Attainment: Simultaneous Scanning
Testers (simultaneous scanning) • Boy that dog is pretty ugly. • Joyful tears ran down the mother’s face as her daughter returned home from school. • The man bought one kilo of jumbo shrimp • Take the down escalator to the washroom. • As the verdict was read she silently yelled, why, why, why. • Now that is an example of military intelligence.
A B Nouns Verbs Biotic Abiotic Addition Subtraction Simile Metaphor Socialism Capitalism Abstract Realism 2 D 3D A B Triangles All other shapes Cars Trains, Buses etc Democracy Other forms Solids Liquids & Gases Translucent Opaque & Transp. Teasing Others forms of B Chemical Other types of Change Change Dichotomous Non Dichotmous
Knowledge as Design • What is the structure of the concept? • What are model cases of the concept? • What is the purpose of the concept? • What is the value of the concept? …David Perkins
Screwdrivers • What is the structure of the concept? • Handle, shaft, end that sticks into screws • What are model cases of the concept? • Phillips, Flat Head, Robertson • What is the purpose of the concept? • Put in screws • What is the value of the concept? • Mechanical advantage
Question • How do wait time, framing questions, think/pair/share, concept attainment, safety, accountability, active participation, Bloom’s Taxonomy, Brain Research, etc., work together?
Questioning Factors • Complexity of Thinking • Academic Engaged Time • Use of Wait Time • Responding to Student Responses • Knowledge of Results • Shifting from Covert to Overt • Fear of Failure • Public vs Private Failure • Distribution of Responses • Accountability and Level of Concern