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CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT. INTRODUCTION. CHINA. TRN EVAL. AIM. TO ACQUAINT YOU WITH TRN OBTAINING ON OUR NORTHERN AND EASTERN BORDERS WITH CHINA AND CARRY OUT A BROAD TRN EVAL. PREVIEW. PART 1 - TIBET GEN PART 2 - LADAKH PART 3 - HP - UP BORDER PART 4 - SIKKIM BORDER PART 5 - ALP BORDER.

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CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT


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  1. CHINA THREAT ASSESSMENT

  2. INTRODUCTION

  3. CHINA TRN EVAL

  4. AIM TO ACQUAINT YOU WITH TRN OBTAINING ON OUR NORTHERN AND EASTERN BORDERS WITH CHINA AND CARRY OUT A BROAD TRN EVAL

  5. PREVIEW • PART 1 - TIBET GEN • PART 2 - LADAKH • PART 3 - HP - UP BORDER • PART 4 - SIKKIM BORDER • PART 5 - ALP BORDER

  6. SCOPE

  7. PART 1: TIBET

  8. GEN • PLATEAU- 14,000 FT (3050 M) TO 16,000 FT (4875M) • AREA - 1,221,700 SQ KM • INTERNAL - XINJIANG, QINGHAI BORDERS SICHUAN, YUNNAN • EXTERNAL- INDIA,NEPAL BORDERS BHUTAN & M’MAR

  9. TRN EVAL • Contains High Mtns. • Large Areas Not Surveyed. • Southern & Eastern Portions Have Maj Population & Agricultural Areas. • Undulating With Few Steep Rises & Obst. • Hard & Open, Suitable for Constr of Rds & Airfds.

  10. TRN EVAL • East of Tsang Po bend, mtnous & unstable soil, prone to Landslides/ closure. • Entry difficult but within Tibet, mov easy. • Gradual slope towards India, Nepal

  11. RELIEF OF TIBET • CHANGTHANG REGION • PO REGION • EASTERN TIBET

  12. COMNS

  13. WESTERN HIGHWAY • Length - 2480 kms. • Kashgar to Lhasa via Aksai Chin, Gartok. • Cl 18 one way. • Lhasa to Laze Cl 50. • Closure period - 60 days. • Capacity 800 T daily.

  14. CENTRAL HIGHWAY • Cl 50 two way black top. • Length - 1965 kms. • Xining to Lhasa via Gormo. • Gormo- Lhasa 1127 kms. • Closure pd - 40 days. • Capacity - 2700 T daily.

  15. EASTERN HIGHWAY • Chengdu - Lhasa via Chamdo, Pangta. • Cl 18 one way. • Kangting - Pangta two alignments. • N Alignment via Chamdo - 2405 kms. • S Alignment via Mankang - 2085 kms. • Closure period - 90 days. • Capacity 800 T daily.

  16. EASTERN HIGHWAY • Tibet -Yunnan Highway from Mangkang. • 700kms. • Cl 9. • Induction route from Chengdu MR

  17. KARAKORAM HIGHWAY • Length - 1225 Km. • Kashgar - Havelian via Khunjerab Pass • Kashgar - Khunjerab (395 km) Cl 18 two way. • Closure period - 90 days. • Khunjerab-Gilgit Cl 40. • Gilgit-Havelian Cl 70.

  18. RAIL • Xinning - Gormo. • Capacity 1000 T/ 640 pers per train. • Daily eight trains (Four each way). • Now extended South 33 km.

  19. OIL PPL • Length - 1220 kms. • Gormo - Lhasa. • Oil Depots - 3 • Pumping stns - 12 • Annual capacity - 5 Lakh T. • Present capacity - 1.25 Lakh T. • Annual reqmt - 6 Lakh T.

  20. AIR FDS • Eastern & Central Sects. • Hoping • Kongka Dz • Donshoon • Nagchu ka • Pangta • Ladakh Sect • Khotan

  21. TELE-COMNS • Line & Radio comn from Lhasa to all Adm dists & Mil sub dists. • Grnd Satl Earth stn at Lhasa on INTELSAT netwk. • Direct comn link via satl from Lhasa to Beijing.

  22. EMP OF ARMR • Possible only in Southern Ladakh and North Sikkim.

  23. EFFECTS OF HAA • Tps to be acclimatised, trained & motivated • Wpns & Eqpt - due care, calibration • Lack of natural cover • Considerable strain on lgs as area devoid of natural resources • Dply of arty has it own problems

  24. PART 2 : LADAKH

  25. TRN EVAL • Sparsely inhabited, barren & arid area. • Himalayas & Karakorams run NW to SE • Steep & sharp crested, 15,000 to 25,000 ft. • Separating the mtn massif are narrow valleys & gorges upto 7000 ft deep.

  26. TRN EVALUATION • Least rugged portion from NE Ladakh Eastwards. • Permits ltd X country mov for tr & wh vehs in Southern Ladakh only. • Open space only in Indus Valley.

  27. TRN EVAL • Climate • Low temp throughout the region. • Severe winters, temp upto (-) 79 deg C. • Vegetation. Barren & arid hence no cover available. • Population • Sparsely inhabited. • Imp places are Rudok, Churkang, Tashigong.

  28. TRN EVAL • Rivers • R Indus. • Enters India at Demchock. • 4 to 10 ft deep, fast flowing (2-5 kts) • Flows West to Leh. • Obst for inf & B veh (100- 300 ft wide) • Frozen in winter, Xg by B veh w/o eqpt is possible.

  29. COMNS • Western highway passes through Aksai Chin. • Two laterals • Lhasa to Gartok (Cl 18) • Anto to Giamuk (Cl 9) • Nine feeder rds upto IB / LAC and can be linked to own rds at Chushul & Demchok.

  30. EFFECTS OF TRN • Favourable period for launching ops ltd from Apr to Nov. • X country mov restd to ft travel in all areas other than apchs from Spanggur & Tashigong where dply of mech forces is possible. • Deployability upto two Divs.

  31. PART 3 : HP - UPBORDER

  32. TRN EVAL • GEN • CLIMATE • VEGETATION • POPULATION • RIVERS • COMNS

  33. CL 9 FEEDER RDS EX WESTERN HIGHWAY • Gartok - Shipki (280 km) • Gartok - Tholingmath - Poling - Sarang ( 172 km ) • Missar - Kunglung - Dapa - Tholingmath - Poling - Sarang (310 km ) • Porkha - Silangtar (91 km ) • Porkha - Taklakot (95 km)

  34. RD H TO BORDER • SHIPKI 6 KM • SARANG 15 KM • TICHAMUR 19 KM • POLING 12 KM • JINDU 10 KM • KUNGLUNG 59 KM • SILANGTAR 14 KM • PALA (TAKLAKOT) 8 KM

  35. IMP PASSES • SHIPKI LA 13,300 FT • THAG LA 16,500 FT • MANA 18,394 FT • NITI 17,387 FT • KUNGRI BINGRI LA 18,250 FT • NUWE DHURA 18,450 FT • LIPU LEKH 16,800 FT

  36. CHINESE CLAIM AREAS • KAURIK - SHIPKI - 303 SQ KM • PULAM SUMDA -1336 SQ KM • BARAHOTI - 460 SQ KM

  37. TRN : OWN SIDE • HP SECT • UP SECT

  38. EFFECTS OF TRN • Large scale mil ops over prolonged period difficult • Campaigning season - Oct to Nov • Ft and AT mov difficult • Lgs sp problematic

  39. PART 4SIKKIM

  40. TRN EVAL GEN

  41. N SIKKIM • East Nepal tri junc to Khungyame La • Northern portion high alt plateau

  42. IMP PASSES IN NORTH SIKKIM • NAKU LA 17,290 FT • KONGRA LA 16,840 FT ( OPEN PERENIALLY) • CHOMDO 17,180 FT • SE SE LA 17,920 FT (OPEN PERENIALLY ) • KHUNGYAME LA 18,390 FT

  43. IMP PASSES IN NE SIKKIM • GORA LA 17,220 FT • PHIMKARU LA 16,160 FT • TANGKAR LA 16, 060 FT

  44. EAST SIKKIM • Tangkar La to Batang La on Bhutan border • IB runs along Chumbi valley • Rugged and difficult trn • Land slide prone • Bad weather • No vegetation astride IB

  45. IMP PASSES IN EAST SIKKIM • Cho La 14534 ft • Nathu La 14042 ft (perenially open) • Jelep La 14410 ft -do- • Batang La 14817 ft -do-

  46. CHUMBI VALLEY • Moderate alt • Comfortable weather conditions • Good forest cover • Adequate water • X countrry mov feasible • Passes • Agla La, Goche La, Kayarang La, Thang La

  47. EFFECTS OF TRN • Mov off the rd difficult except in plains opposite North Sikkim & North Chumbi valley • North-South X country mov difficult • Chumbi valley East -West X country mov difficult • Passes are key trn features • Apch from Tibetan side easier

  48. EFFECTS OF TRN • Entry into Chumbi valley restd to four passes • Devp of comns particularly to East difficult and time consuming • Rd blocked for 60 to 90 days • High alt problems for men and mtrl

  49. TRN : OWN SIDE • Strat imp of Siliguri corridor • Chumbi valley to BD border 90 km • Chumbi valley to plains 30 km • Nepal to BD 22 km • Comn and oil ppl from NE

  50. RD COMNS • Cl 70 NH TO GUWAHATI AND FURTHER EAST • NH SILIGURI - GANGTOK (CL 24 UPTO TEESTA, CL 9 TO GANGTOK) • SILIGURI-KALIMPONG (CL 9 AW) • GANGTOK- NATHU LA (CL 9AW ) • KALIMPONG - JELEP LA (CL 9 AW )