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Chemical Properties of Atoms. Electrons determine how an atom behaves when it encounters other atoms. First electron shell can hold 2 electrons. Outer electron shell can hold 8 electrons. Electron. Hydrogen H Atomic number = 1. Carbon C Atomic number = 6. Nitrogen N

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chemical properties of atoms
Chemical Properties of Atoms
  • Electrons determine how an atom behaves when it encounters other atoms.

First electron shell

can hold 2 electrons

Outer electron shell

can hold 8 electrons

Electron

Hydrogen H

Atomic number = 1

Carbon C

Atomic number = 6

Nitrogen N

Atomic number = 7

Oxygen O

Atomic number = 8

© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

slide2

The Chemical Basis of Life

Energy levels of electrons

*chemical behavior due to electrons

Electron configuration and chemical properties:

covalent bonds
Covalent Bonds
  • A covalent bond forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons.
  • Atoms held together by covalent bonds form a molecule.

Name

molecular formula

Electron configuration

Structural formula

Space-filling model

Ball-and-stick model

Hydrogen gas H2

Single bond

a pair of shared electrons

Oxygen gas O2

Double bond

two pairs of shared electrons

Methane CH4

ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • When an atom loses or gains electrons, it becomes electrically charged.
    • Charged atoms are called ions.
    • Ionic bonds are formed between oppositely charged ions.

The outer electron is stripped

from sodium and completes

the chlorine atom’s outer shell

Outer shell

has 1 electron

Complete

outer shells

Outer shell

has 7 electrons

The attraction

between the

ions—an ionic

bond—holds

them together

Na

Sodium atom

Cl

Chlorine atom

Na

Sodium ion

Cl

Chlorine ion

Sodium chloride (NaCl)

hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen Bonds
  • Water is a compound in which the electrons in its covalent bonds are shared unequally.
    • This causes water to be a polar molecule, one with opposite charges on opposite ends.

slightly 

slightly 

H

H

O

slightly –

hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen bonding
  • Weak bonds formed between hydrogen and another atom
    • Surface tension of water
  • Important as intramolecular bonds, giving shape to proteins and other biomolecules
water and life
WATER AND LIFE
  • Life on Earth began in water and evolved there for 3 billion years.
    • Modern life remains tied to water.
    • Your cells are composed of 70%–95% water.
slide8

Properties of Water

  • Cohesion
  • Adhesion

Evaporation from

the leaves

Microscopic tubes

Cohesion due to

hydrogen bonds

between water

molecules

Flow of water

SEM

slide9

Properties of Water

  • Heat and temperature
  • Water can absorb and store large amounts of heat while only changing a few degrees in temperature.
  • Water can moderate temperatures.
slide10

Properties of Water

  • Surface tension is the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid.
slide11

Water is the solvent of life

*solution

*solvent *solute *aqueous solution

slide12

The Chemical Basis of Life

H2O H+ + OH-

*hydrophilic

*hydrophobic

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances

The dissociation of water molecules

*acid

*base

Acids and bases

acids bases and ph

14

Acids, Bases and pH

Oven cleaner

13

Household

bleach

12

Household ammonia

11

Increasingly basic

lower Hconcentration

Basic

solution

Milk of magnesia

10

9

Seawater

8

Human blood

Pure water

7

Neutral

[H+]  [OH–]

6

Urine

Neutral

solution

5

Tomato juice

4

Increasingly acidic

greater Hconcentration

Grapefruit juice,

soft drink

3

2

Lemon juice,

gastric juice

1

Acidic

solution

0

pH scale

carbon and organic chemistry
Carbon and Organic Chemistry
  • Carbon is a versatile atom.
  • Carbon forms large, complex, and diverse molecules necessary for life’s functions.
  • Organic compounds are carbon-based molecules.

Structural

formula

Ball-and-stick

model

Space-filling

model

carbon and organic chemistry1
Carbon and Organic Chemistry

Carbon skeletons vary in length

  • Variations in Carbon skeletons

Carbon skeletons may be unbranched or branched

Carbon skeletons may have double bonds,

which can vary in location

Carbon skeletons may be arranged in rings

hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons
  • Larger hydrocarbons form fuels for engines.
  • Hydrocarbons of fat molecules fuel our bodies.
slide17

Chemical Components of Cells

*structural isomers

Example of enantiomers:

*geometric isomers

*enantiomers