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A Definition of Biometrics

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  1. A Definition of Biometrics Biometrics can be defined as: “The process of identifying and verifying people based upon their unique biological and unique behavioral features”

  2. The Two Major Types of Biometrics There are two major types of biometrics: • Physical biometrics: The biological data that is captured-includes the unique features from the finger, the hand, the face, the eye, and the voice. • Behavioral biometrics: The non-biological data that is captured-includes the unique features from the way we sign our name and the way we type.

  3. The Biometric Technologies Physical Biometric Technologies • Hand Geometry Recognition • Fingerprint Recognition • Facial Recognition • Voice Recognition • Iris/Retinal Recognition Behavioral Biometric Technologies • Signature Recognition • Keystroke Recognition

  4. Physical BiometricsHand Geometry Recognition Technology • Works by extracting a 3-D image of the hand (the top and sides), 96 measurements are taken • Recognized as probably the oldest biometric technology • Popular applications include physical access entry and time/attendance applications • Disadvantages: Cannot be used for high security situations, not enough unique features in hand

  5. Physical BiometricsFingerprint Recognition Technology • Has been around a very long time, along with hand geometry scanning • Works by extracting the the breaks and discontinuities in the valleys and ridges of the fingerprint-also known as the minutae • Most popular application is physical access entry, and Single Sign On Solutions for network security • Disadvantages: An extremely damaged fingerprint will be rendered useless

  6. Physical BiometricsFacial Recognition Technology • Has received the most attention since 9/11 • Misconception that Facial Recognition will be as good or even better than the Human Brain for verification and identification of individuals • Works by taking many images of the face, and extracting unique features of the ears, eyes, nose, mouth, and cheeks • Popular venues for Facial Recognition include casinos and airports • Disadvantages: privacy rights issues, changes in the environmental settings, and physical changes in the features of the face-such as weight gain/loss, addition or removal of facial hair, etc.

  7. Physical BiometricsVoice Recognition Technology • Works by recognizing the unique characteristics of the voice • Text phrase is recited numerous times, and voice inflections are captured • Popular applications: telephony based verifications (such as accessing credit card account info, conducting financial transactions, trading financial instruments, etc.) • Disadvantages: extraneous noises in the environment and physical ailments (cold or flu) of user

  8. Physical BiometricsIris/Retinal Recognition Technology • Iris and Retinal Recognition have often been confused as being similar, however, the two are very different • Both have been deemed to be among the most reliable and stable of the biometric technologies available • The Iris and Retina rarely change over the lifetime of an individual

  9. Physical BiometricsIris Recognition Technology • Works by extracting the unique features in the texture and patterns of the iris, (located in the front of the eye-the colored region between the pupil and the sclera) • Popular applications: expediting the immigration process at airports, physical access entry, and network security • Has been used to positively identify the famous National Geographic picture of “The Afghan Girl”

  10. Physical BiometricsThe Iris

  11. Physical BiometricsRetinal Recognition Technology • Works by examining the unique pattern of blood vessels in the retina (located at the back of the eye, near the optic nerve) • Used for extremely high security applications, such as physical access entry into highly secure areas of military or government installations • Disadvantages: Deemed to be very user invasive; can cause much user discomfort; and requires the most cooperation from the user, when compared to other biometric technologies

  12. Physical BiometricsThe Retina

  13. Behavioral BiometricsSignature Recognition Technology • Examines the way in which we sign our name, not the signature itself • The unique behavioral characteristics are the timing, speed, and pressure applied during the course of signing • It has a high level of resistance to impostors-easy to forge a signature, but not the behavioral characteristics. Also deemed to be a noninvasive biometric technology • However, it has not reached a dominant level of market share like Fingerprint Recognition and Hand Geometry Recognition. There have been very limited uses in the financial sector

  14. Behavioral BiometricsKeystroke Recognition Technology • Examines the way in which we type on a computer keyboard • In order to capture the unique features, an individual must type a specific group of words approximately 15 times-very often it is the Username and Password • The unique features include: *The cumulative typing speed; *The elapsed time between consecutive keystrokes; *The time that each key is held down; *The frequency of use of other keys (function and numeric keys); *The sequence utilized when typing a capital letter (Shift key or letter key released first?) • Keystroke Recognition is a 100% software solution-therefore, all that is needed is a keyboard-no need to install new hardware

  15. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications Biometric Technology has solutions and applications in the following market sectors: *Time and Attendance *Physical Access Entry *Computer and Network Logon

  16. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Time and Attendance • Time and Attendance refers to the clocking in and clocking out of hourly wage employees, and keeping track of hours worked • Very often, some sort of timecard is used, an employee ID number, or a Social Security number for the purposes of clocking in and out • Here lies the problem-an employee could give another employee their Identification Number, and have that employee clock in for them, when they have not even appeared at all for their shift • This is referred to as “Buddy Punching”

  17. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Time and Attendance • Biometric Technology has been utilized to help eliminate the problem of “Buddy Punching” • Many Time and Attendance applications have utilized Hand Geometry Recognition as the tool of choice • The employee’s hand becomes their Clocking In and Clocking Out mechanism • Since nobody can share their hand, and it is unique, the problem of “Buddy Punching” almost becomes zero

  18. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Time and Attendance • Places where Hand Geometry Recognition is being used: Owens-Illinois; Krispy Kreme Doughnuts; Decatur Hotel Group (in New Orleans); First Bank Puerto Rico; and McDonald’s • Advantages of using Biometric Technology for Time and Attendance: *Cost of issuing and replacing Timecards eliminated *Very accurate Payroll Calculations and Employee Attendance Records, reduction in paperwork *Payroll Policies can be applied consistently and fairly, especially to Overtime and Holiday Pay

  19. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: A Hand Geometry Scanner

  20. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Physical Access Entry • Biometric Technology has also made its mark in Physical Access Entry scenarios • The need to have a lock and key system has become almost obsolete • Your Hand, Finger, or Eye can be used to unlock a door • However, most systems today use Hand Geometry Recognition and Fingerprint Recognition

  21. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Physical Access Entry • Typically, the Hand Geometry Scanner or Fingerprint Scanner is mounted to a wall, and an electromagnetic lock strike attached to the door is wired directly to the Biometric Device • Once the Hand Geometry or Fingerprint has been verified by the Biometric System, a signal is sent to the lock strike to unlock the door • In Physical Access Entry scenarios, Biometric Devices can operate in a standalone or networked mode, where one door or multiple doors can be unlocked and opened

  22. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Physical Access Entry • Many types of organizations are using this type of security, ranging from International Airports to Military Installations to University Dormitories to Child Daycare Centers • Advantages of using Biometric Technology: *Only personnel enrolled in the Biometric System can gain entry *Cost of issuing/replacing ID Cards becomes almost zero-your Hand Geometry or Fingerprint is the key *Efficiency and Ease of Use: Verification by Biometric System in less than 1 Second

  23. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Physical Access Entry • Many organizations and businesses today are adopting the implementation of a “Multi-Modal” Security Solution-a Two Tier Security System • This involves using more than one biometric technology together in order to maximize the level of security • A typical example of this is using a Hand Geometry Scanner at the main entry point, and then using a Fingerprint Scanner at more sensitive points within the place of business

  24. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: A Fingerprint Scanner

  25. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Computer and Network Logon • Typically, in order to gain access to a network, we have to type in an established Username and Password • However, with the growth of the Internet and Web Based Applications, the need for multiple Usernames and Passwords has grown exponentially • As a result, people tend to write down their Usernames and Passwords on “Post Its” and leave them on their computer monitor • This has led to a substantial increase in the costs of password administration and maintenance-now at $250 per employee per year

  26. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Computer and Network Logon • The use of Biometric Technology can eliminate the need for Usernames and Passwords • Your Fingerprint or Iris becomes the mechanism for gaining access to the network or your computer • Fingerprint Recognition and Iris Recognition are the primary tools utilized • This is referred to as “Single Sign On Solutions”- because only one piece of identification, your biometric, is needed

  27. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: Computer and Network Logon • These “Single Sign On Solution” devices come embedded onto a keyboard, onto a mouse, or into a small camera (for Iris Recognition) • Advantages of using Biometric Technology for Computer and Network Logon: * Password administration and maintenance costs become virtually zero *No need to remember multiple Usernames and Passwords *Use of a Biometric is much more secure than Usernames and Passwords-after all, a Biometric cannot be shared *You cannot “forget” you Biometric-unlike Usernames and Passwords

  28. Biometric Technology Solutions and Applications: A Network Logon Device