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Lipids. CH339K. What are lipids?. Grab bag of molecular types Common link is their hydrophobicity Fats Glycerophospholipids Sphingolipids Waxes Eicosanods Steroids And other stuff. F A T T Y A C I D S.

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Lipids

Lipids

CH339K


What are lipids
What are lipids?

  • Grab bag of molecular types

  • Common link is their hydrophobicity

    • Fats

    • Glycerophospholipids

    • Sphingolipids

    • Waxes

    • Eicosanods

    • Steroids

    • And other stuff


Lipids 1317643

F

A

T

T

Y

A

C

I

D

S


Lipids 1317643

You can’t make fatty acids where the double bond is 6 carbons or closer to the end of the molecule



Melting temps of fatty acids
Melting Temps of Fatty Acids acids are usually


Lipids 1317643

(Glycerol tripalmitate) acids are usually


Grandma s lye soap saponification
Grandma’s Lye Soap acids are usually (Saponification)


Fatty acid salts are amphipathic
Fatty Acid Salts are acids are usually Amphipathic


Waxes
Waxes acids are usually

Very often – fatty acid + long-chain alcohol.


Plant leaf cuticle
Plant leaf cuticle acids are usually


Insect epicuticle
Insect acids are usually epicuticle


Beeswax components
Beeswax components acids are usually


Spermaceti
Spermaceti acids are usually

  • Largely cetyl palmitate

  • Large whale may have 3 tons

  • May function as lens in echolocation

  • May function as shock absorber in combat

  • Sank the whale ship Essex in 1820




Phospholipids in h 2 o
Phospholipids in H in a fat?2O


Cardiolipin s
Cardiolipin(s) in a fat?

Glycerol

Major component of inner mitochondrial membrane (up to 20%)

R groups usually c18:2



Lipids 1317643

Causes platelet aggregation and vasodilation (inflammatory mediator).

Important to the process of hemostasis.

Important in implantation.

Concentration of 10-12 M causes life threatening inflammation of the airways (asthma-like symptoms).

Toxins such as fragments of destroyed bacteria induce synthesis of PAF

causes drop in blood pressure

reduced volume of blood pumped by the heart

shock and possible death.


Glycolipids
Glycolipids mediator).



Archaean membrane lipids
Archaean membrane lipids mediator).

Polymers of

isoprene

Sulfolobus solfataricus


Sphingolipids
Sphingolipids mediator).

Sphingosine by itself



Tay sachs a defect insphingolipid metabolism
Tay-Sachs mediator). – a Defect inSphingolipid Metabolism

As a child with Tay-Sachs grows older, he or she may become blind, mentally retarded, paralyzed, and unresponsive to the environment. The child also may have seizures, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Children with Tay-Sachs disease rarely live beyond 4 or 5 years of age.


Tay sachs a defect insphingolipid metabolism1
Tay-Sachs mediator). – a Defect inSphingolipid Metabolism

Mutation in lysosomal enzyme Hexosaminidase A


Cholesterol
Cholesterol mediator).


Lipids 1317643

Steroid Hormones mediator).


Bile salts
Bile Salts mediator).

Bile salts are steroid acids



Lipids 1317643

  • Derivatives of mediator). ArachidonicAcid

  • Leukotrienes – conjugated double bonds

    • vasoconstrictors

  • Thromboxanes – 6-membered ring

    • Clot formation

  • Prostaglandins – 5-membered ring

    • Many functions

    • Inflammatory response

    • Vasodilators

    • Pyogenic

Prostacyclin


Eicosanoid functions
Eicosanoid functions mediator).

  • Prostaglandins have 5- or 6-membered ring

    • Short-range hormones mediating (among other things) pain and inflammation, uterine contraction

  • Prostacyclins have a double ring structure

    • Inhibit clotting, vasodilators

  • Thromboxanes are made in platelets, contain oxygen in the ring

    • Vasoconstrictors, hypertensives, aggregate platelets

  • Leukotrienes have 3 conjugated double bonds

    • Asthmatic, allergic, and inflammatory responses



Phospholipids in h 2 o1
Phospholipids in H eicosanoid formation 2O


Lipid bilayer
Lipid Bilayer eicosanoid formation


Cell membrane
Cell Membrane eicosanoid formation


Integral and peripheral proteins
Integral and Peripheral Proteins eicosanoid formation


Membrane functions
Membrane Functions eicosanoid formation


Membrane composition
Membrane Composition eicosanoid formation


Membrane composition1
Membrane Composition eicosanoid formation






Factors impacting tm
Factors Impacting Tm layers

  • Chain length

    • Longer chains  more vdW contacts (higher Tm)

  • Unsaturation

    • Unsaturated FAs  fewer vdW contacts (lower Tm)

  • Size / Charge of head groups

    • Big head groups  steric interference lower Tm)

    • Charged head groups  electrostatic repulsion lower Tm)

  • Cholesterol

    • Interferes with packing at low temps

    • Stiffens membrane at high temps

    • Broadens melting curve


Some organisms change their membrane composition seasonally in order to maintain constant fluidity
Some organisms change their membrane composition seasonally in order to maintain constant fluidity