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ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004. Solar System Science with the ALMA. Mark Gurwell. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004. (alternate title for cosmologists). The Really Really Really Really Really Really Really Low Z Universe with the ALMA.

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alma science workshop may 2004
ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

Solar System Science

with the ALMA

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian

Center for Astrophysics

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

alternate title for cosmologists
(alternate title for cosmologists)

The Really Really Really

Really ReallyReallyReally

Low Z Universe

with the ALMA

Mark Gurwell

Harvard-Smithsonian

Center for Astrophysics

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

alma what s it good for
ALMA - What’s It Good For?

We can use it to study pretty much everything out there:

  • Planetary and satellite atmospheres

(DRSP Theme 4.1)

  • Solid surfaces of planets, rings,

satellites, KBOs and other minor

bodies (DRSP Theme 4.2)

  • Cometary comae and nuclei

(DRSP theme 4.3)

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

synergy the competition
Synergy/’the competition’

Need synergy with, to complement, and/or to exceed current and future observatories, e.g.

SMA

HST/NGST

MRO

IRAM

JCMT

(E)V

L

A

B

I

M

A

OVRO

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

alma sensitivity i point source sensitivity in 60 s
ALMA Sensitivity I -Point Source Sensitivity in 60 s*

Charon

(mJy)

0.15

0.95

2.02

6.25

Frequency

(GHz)

90

230

345

650

Continuum

(mJy)

0.031

0.060

0.14

1.9

1 km s-1

(mJy)

5.1

6.1

11

120

*From http://www.alma.nrao.edu/info/sensitivities/index.html

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

alma sensitivity ii high resolution
ALMA Sensitivity II-High Resolution

D (AU)

0.3

1

5

10

30

50

100

25 mas

(km)

5.4

18

91

181

544

907

1813

Thanks to Karl Menten for this plot!

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

before the drsp details what are we interested in a non exhaustive list
Before the DRSP details: What are we interested in? A non-exhaustive list

How are the denizens of the solar system alike? How are they different?

How do they ‘work’?

What evolution have they undergone?

Are there conditions for life elsewhere?

How unique is our solar system?

Now, on to the Details…

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 1 planetary atmospheres atmospheric structure and dynamics
4.1.1 Planetary Atmospheres - Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics

Courtesy Todd Clancy

SMA Mars CO 2-1 Map

JCMT Venus Wind Measurement

ALMA will measure vertical thermal structure and directly characterize winds on Mars and Venus on size scales of 100 km or less.

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 2 planetary atmospheres mars 3d water cycle
4.1.2 Planetary Atmospheres - Mars 3D Water Cycle

Clancy et al 1990

VLA 22 GHz Water Map

OVRO 226 GHz HDO Map

ALMA can match HST resolution with sensitivity to mm/sub mm transitions to study atmospheric temperature and water distribution in 3D

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 3 planetary atmospheres chemistry and trace species detection
4.1.3 Planetary Atmospheres -Chemistry and Trace Species Detection

JCMT data, Courtesy Todd Clancy

ALMA will have sensitivity and spatial resolution to seek, find, and map the distribution of trace atmospheric species on Mars, Venus and other planets

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 5 planetary atmospheres tropospheres of giant planets
4.1.5 Planetary Atmospheres -Tropospheres of Giant Planets

(top) Phosphine 3-2 on Jupiter

(CSO FTS, Weisstein and Serabyn)

(left) 3.6 cm tropospheric emission during

SL/9 impact (Grossman et al.)

ALMA’s continuum sensitivity (8 GHz bandwidth)

will allow detection of thermal gradients,

belt/zone structure and very broad

absorption lines from giant planet tropospheres

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 6 planetary atmospheres titan s atmospheric chemistry dynamics
4.1.6 Planetary Atmospheres - Titan’s Atmospheric Chemistry/Dynamics

Gurwell (2004)

SMA 850 micron unresolved observations

OVRO 1.2 mm low res maps of nitriles

Titan is cool! And with ALMA we will be able to study

its atmosphere with unprecedented detail, including direct

measure of winds and 3D structure of temperature and

molecular abundances on scales of a few hundred km

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 7 and 4 2 3 planetary atmospheres and surfaces io s volcanism
4.1.7 and 4.2.3 Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces - Io’s Volcanism

Io: 3630 km diameter

= 1” at 5 AU

500 km plume = 140 mas

Galileo images courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech.

ALMA can map thermal emission from the surface showing location and temperature of hot spots, and can map molecules in volcanic plumes

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 2 2 and 4 2 5 planetary surfaces mapping mercury and asteroids
4.2.2 and 4.2.5 Planetary Surfaces -Mapping Mercury and Asteroids

VLA image courtesy Bryan Butler

SMT data courtesy Amy Lovell

ALMA will map temperature in the upper centimeter of the surfaces of terrestrial planets, moons, and minor bodies, providing understanding of surface material characteristics

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 2 1 and 4 2 3 planetary surfaces mapping pluto and charon
4.2.1 and 4.2.3 Planetary Surfaces - Mapping Pluto and Charon

Pluto is 100 mas and Charon is 50 mas at current distance from sun.

ALMA will map the thermal emission from Pluto and Charon with up to 40 resolution elements, measuring temperature and/or emissivity variations that may change with time

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 2 x planetary surfaces sizes temperatures and albedos of distant bodies
4.2.x Planetary Surfaces - Sizes, Temperatures, and Albedos of Distant Bodies

ALMA will measure the temperatures of numerous KBOs in a matter of minutes, and modestly resolve the largest objects in the outer solar Kuiper Belt (and beyond?!)

Shamelessly taken from Mike Brown’s website

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 3 comets
4.3 Comets

Hale-Bopp

Blake et al 2000 (OVRO)

ALMA will study the molecular gas streaming from comets with great detail, informing our understanding of comet composition and coma chemistry

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 3 comets ii
4.3 Comets II

SMA observations by Qi et al

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

beyond
Beyond…

More shameless pilfering by moi from Mike Brown!

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 4 extrasolar planets
4.4 Extrasolar Planets

What if…

Alpha centauri unit

Alpha centauri unit

It’s the same guy! Coincidence? Hmmm…

Special thanks to David Wilner as cocreator of L&O: ACU

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 1 extrasolar planets direct detection of jupiters around nearby stars i
4.1.1 Extrasolar Planets - Direct Detection of Jupiters around Nearby Stars I

1600 K

800 K

400 K

Jupiter

Saturn

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

4 1 1 extrasolar planets direct detection of jupiters around nearby stars ii
4.1.1 Extrasolar Planets - Direct Detectionof Jupiters around Nearby Stars II

1600 K

800 K

400 K

Jupiter

Saturn

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

and even further beyond
And even further beyond…

Courtesy David Wilner

Ahh, but Neal covered this earlier…

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

concluding remarks
Concluding Remarks

Important Considerations:

High Fidelity Imaging

Imaging Scales from 10mas to degrees

Bandpass Fidelity Over Large Bandwidth

Long Baselines/High Resolution

1% Amplitude Calibration is Good

Tracking of ‘Fast’, and Close, Objects

Radar in the future?

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

concluding remarks1
Concluding Remarks

ALMA will be an incredibly sensitive instrument for continuum and line observations of solar system objects. With resolution comparable to or exceeding nearly all other observatories save robotic missions, it will have a major impact in solar system studies

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

Thanks to R. Todd Clancy, Amy Lovell,

Karl Menten, Charlie Qi, Bryan Butler (without his knowledge, perhaps) and David Wilner for valuable contributions to this presentation.

ALMA Science Workshop, May 2004