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Grids and Grid Technologies for Wide-Area Distributed Computing. Mark Baker, Rajkumar Buyya and Domenico Laforenza. Agenda. Overview of Grid Concerning issues in Grid Components and Services in Grid Current Projects and Future Grid in Multimedia Applications. What is Grid?.
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Grids and Grid Technologies for Wide-Area Distributed Computing Mark Baker, Rajkumar Buyya and Domenico Laforenza
Agenda • Overview of Grid • Concerning issues in Grid • Components and Services in Grid • Current Projects and Future • Grid in Multimedia Applications
What is Grid? • In the last decade, the availability of cheap computational resources and high-speed networks leads to an opportunity of using distributed computers as a single, unified computing resources. • This is known as Grid Computing
What is Grid? • The term Grid is chosen as analogy to power Grid that provides consistent and transparent access to electricity irrespective to its sources • A Grid can be viewed as seamless, integrated computational and collaborative environment
What is Grid? • Some well-known name of Grid Computing • Meta Computing • Scalable Computing • Global Computing • Internet Computing • Peer-to-Peer Computing
Construction of Grid • The four main issues in designing and constructing a Grid • Multiple Administrative Domains and Autonomy • Heterogeneity • Scalability • Dynamicity and Adaptability
Construction of Grid • Multiple Administrative Domains and Autonomy • A Grid Infrastructure is supposed to be geographically distributed • It is owned by different individuals and organizations. • Heterogeneity • Computational resources are heterogeneous in nature
Construction of Grid • Scalability • Ranging from a few to million • Raising a problem of performance degradation as population increases • Dynamicity and Adaptability • Failure is a rule, not exception • Services or applications must use resources dynamically, effectively and efficiently.
Grid Components • Conceptually, a grid is designed based on four layers • Grid Fabric • Core Grid Middleware • User level Middleware • Applications
Grid Components • Grid Fabric • It manages the network resources, like computers, data storage, routers and input devices etc. across the network geographically. • Core Grid Middleware • It manages how the network resources co-operating together. It provides the services like remote process management and QoS etc.
Grid Components • User Level Middleware • It provides an application development environment offering for high-level application. • Applications
Assumptions • No intervention with existing technologies • Do not interfere with the existing site administration or autonomy. • Do not compromise existing security of users and remote sites • Do not need to replace the existing network protocol, operating system or services. Use existing standard • Use standard, existing protocols and is able to interact with the legacy applications
Assumptions • Support reliable and fault tolerant system • Support for heterogeneity • Allow computational resources join or leave at any time
Services of Grid • Administrative Hierarchy • This determine how the administrative informationflows through the Grid • Communication Services • This requires to the Grid to support protocol for different data transfer, like streaming, group communication and QoS etc.
Services of Grid • Information Services • A major goal is to make all resources accessible to any process in the Grid. • Grid is a dynamic environment • This services must provide a mechanism for registering and obtaining information of the Grid structure, resources, services and status
Services of Grid • Naming Services • This services must provide a uniform name space across the complete Grid environment • Distributed File Systems and Caching • Same as the Naming Services, this provides a uniform name space for retrieving file. • Support I/O protocols, performance enhancement etc.
Services of Grid • Security and Authorization • This provides a security infrastructure for managing and utilizing the Grid resources. • System Status and Fault Tolerant Services • Failure is a rule in the Grid, not exception • This provides a reliable and robust environment
Services of Grid • Resource Management and Scheduling • This is responsible for scheduling all the processes within the Grid to utilizing the resources, like processing power, storage etc. • Programming Tools • This provides an interface for development • User Administration and GUI
Grid Computing Projects • Main Initiatives • Global Grid Forum • http://www.gridforum.org • Peer-to-Peer Working Group (P2PWG) • http://www.p2pwg.org • Three important technologies in Grid Computing nowadays • Java Technology • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) • Distributed Common Object Model (DCOM)
Current Projects • Active Sheets • Compute Power Market • DISC World • GridSim • Nimrod/G & GRACE • Virtual Lab • World Wide Grid (WWG) • More ……
Future • Grid resources can be used to solve grand challenges in a wide scope of fields, like physics etc.
Grid in Multimedia Applications • Administrative Hierarchy • Communication Services • Information Services • Naming Services • Distributed File Systems and Caching • System Status and Fault Tolerant Services • Security and Authorization • Resource Management and Scheduling • Programming Tools • User Administration and GUI
Grid in Multimedia Applications • Communication Services • It is a problem of how a group of clients streaming data so as to minimize their costs under the current system status • Distributed File Systems and Caching • It is a problem of how data are stored in a group of clients under the current system status
Grid in Multimedia Applications • System Status and Fault Tolerant Services • Resource Management and Scheduling • Information Services • It is a problem of how to manage the join/leave action of clients in the multimedia applications in which it changes the system status • How such changes affect the decision made by the previous 2 services