Volcanic hazards. >1300 volcanoes known to have erupted in Holocene (last 10 000 years) ~500 classified as ‘active’ (i.e. known to have erupted in recorded history)
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Plus new vents: e.g. Paricutin (Michoacan, Mexico)
shown erupting in 1943 (graphic by Diego Rivera)
60% around Pacific; 20% in Mediterranean region
Low RiskHigh RiskGas Pressure
Eruptionmagnitude= Volcanic Explosivity Index
0 nonexplosive Icelandic/
“Aa” (blocky lava) flow, Hawai “Pahoehoe” (ropy lava) flow, Reunion
Hazards - property burnt and buried by lava
Five active volcanoes;
hazards are mainly lava flows, although tephra and gas emissions also occur. Hazard profile similar for all three.
excavated area of Roman
(20 m below
Yakima, WA (May, 1980)
Fine-grained volcanic ash can cause health problems in susceptible people, clog ventilation systems, cause electrical short circuits, damage crops, and wreck jet engines (e.g. the BA 747 that lost all 4 engines and dropped 4 km after encountering an ash cloud over Indonesia in 1982).
Visit the AVO website [http://puff.images.alaska.edu/] for animations of current eruptions
Ruins of St. Pierre, Martinique.
Pyroclastic flow (>700°C; ~200 km/h) from Mt. Pelée in 1902 killed 30 000 people; 2 survived.
Collapse of eruption
column (Mt. MayonPhillipines, 1968)
More than 1700 people killed as a result of a massive release of CO2; formed a ‘river’about 50m deep that flowed for 25 km. L. Nyos currently contains about 350 M m3 of CO2. Similar event at L. Monoun (Cameroon) in 1984 resulted in 37 deaths.Volcanic gases
In 1783 a massive fissure eruption near Laki, Iceland released huge amounts of basaltic lava (5 000 m3/s), and a ‘dry fog’ rich in SO2 and flourine. Some 75% of stock animals in Iceland died, the subsequent famine killed 10 000 people.
age: 5600 yrs BPlength: 120 kmvolume: 40x Ruiz
depth: 20mvelocity: >70 km/hpop: 100 000
In 1996 a subglacial eruption released 4 km3 of meltwater
From data in: Andronico, D. and Cioni, R. 2002. Bull. Volcanology 64, 372-391.
SE Asia and Pacific = 42
Americas and Caribbean = 40
Africa and Europe - 7
Total = 89
(of ~500 active volcanoes)
Ruins of Roman market, Pozzuoli; inundated by sea, uplifted by 2m in <10 years as a result of volcano-tectonic forces beneath Campi Flegrei caldera
Church of Purgatory,