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2 009 GSA Annual Meeting From Volcanoes to Vineyards: Living with Dynamic Landscapes T 25 Groundwater in Ecosystems 18-21 October Portland, Oregon, USA Oregon Convention Center.

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judit m dl sz nyi 1 and j zsef t th 2

2009 GSA Annual Meeting

From Volcanoes to Vineyards: Living with Dynamic Landscapes

T 25 GroundwaterinEcosystems

18-21 October Portland, Oregon, USAOregon Convention Center

Patterns of Soil and WetlandSalinizationduetoDynamicInteractionbetweengravity-drivenandoverpressured flow, Duna-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary

Judit Mádl-Szőnyi1 and József Tóth2

1Department of Physical and Applied Geology, Eötvös Loránd University

1/c. Pázmány P. sétány, Budapest, Hungary

e-mail: szjudit@ludens.elte.hu

2Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences,

University of Alberta, Edmonton,

AB T6G 2E3 Canada

  • Objectives
  • The StudyArea
  • Database and Methods
  • Results

Groundwater Flow Pattern

Water and Soil-Salinity

  • Interpretationin a SchematicPattern
  • Summary and Conclusion

Background: The Duna-Tisza Interfluve is plaguedbysoil and wetlandsalinization.

Goals of thestudy:

1. What is thesource of thesalts?

2. Whatarethecontrols and mechanisms of theirdistributionpattern?


The StudyArea 1


80-95 m asl

2-3 m

80-95 m asl

2-3 m

100-130m asl

3-4 m

Kelemenszék Lake

Kolon Lake

Locations of

data, sections

and pressure


(Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 2)

the study area 2 geology
The StudyArea 2Geology

Generalized hydrostratigraphic section, Great Plain, Hungary

(Tóth and Almási, 2001, Fig. 8, based on Juhász, 1991, Fig. 7)

database and methods
Database and Methods
  • Major datatypes:waterlevels, porepressuresfromwater- and hydrocarbonwells, chemicaldatafromwater-andhydrocarbonwells, lithologicsamples, petrophysicalandgeologicalbore-holelogs, seismicsections, ecologicallandscapedata.
  • Methods:

- hydrostratigraphicevaluation, analysis of groundwaterflow-distribution; maps, sections and p(z) profileswereproduced.

- chemicalevaluation; only Na+, Cl- and TDS contentwereconsidered.

- ecological and soilevaluation; ecological site map.

results groundwater flow pattern 1
ResultsGroundwater Flow Pattern 1

Deep regional sections

(Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth, 2009, Fig. 4)


Deep regional sections (Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 4b)

results groundwater flow pattern 2
ResultsGroundwater Flow Pattern 2

Izsák- Kolon Lake






Pressure profile: Izsák

(Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 8c)

Seismic section: Ki-3 (Mészáros, 2005, Fig. 6.6.)

results groundwater flow pattern 3
ResultsGroundwater Flow Pattern 3



Detailed local section: hydrostratigraphy and hydraulics (Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 6)

results water and soil salinity 1
ResultsWater and Soil-Salinity 1

Evaluation of groundwater salinity for hydrostratigraphic units

(Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Table 1)

results water and soil salinity 2
ResultsWater and Soil-Salinity 2

Duna Valley

TDS:>2000 mg/l,

Cl-:>500 mg/l

TDS: <500 mg/l

Cl-:<30 mg/l

Detailed local section: hydrostratigraphy and Cl-, TDS content of groundwater

(Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 10)

results water and soil salinity 3
ResultsWater and Soil-Salinity 3

Duna Valley

Shallow groundwater

chemistry map

(modified from Kuti and

Kőrössy 1989,

Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth,

2009 Fig. 12)

Ecological site map (Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth, 2009, Fig. 13)

interpretation in a schematic pattern
InterpretationIn a SchematicPattern

The Duna-Tisza Interfluve Hydrogeological Type Section (Mádl-Szőnyi and Tóth 2009, Fig. 14)


Summary and Conclusion 1

1. Sources of the salts:

  • NaCl type water, TDS: 10 000-38 000

mgL-1 from the Pre-Neogene


  • NaHCO3 typewater, TDS: 420-2 500

mgL-1 in the Neogene sediments.

  • The two water mix, with basement

origine Cl- beeng a natural tracer of

deep water at shallower depths.

summary and conclusion 2
Summary and Conclusion 2

2. Mechanism of salt distribution:

  • Gravitational flow-systems of meteoric fresh water are perched hydraulically upon the rising salt waters. The hydraulic interaction between the two regimes controls the transport routes to, and distribution of the salts at, the land surface.

3. Distribution pattern:

  • Salinity distribution at the surface is explained by the tectonically driven cross-formational rise of deep saline waters channeled in and mixed with fresh waters by near-surface sediments and gravity flow-systems.
  • The authors are pleased to acknowledge the assistance and contributions received from the following agencies and individuals for data and logistical support: the Kiskunság National Park (A. Iványosi-Szabó); the Institutes for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, and Ecology and Botany (Zs. Bakacsi, Zs. Molnár) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Gy. Pogácsás, Associate Professor, Eötvös Loránd Science University (ELTE).
  • L. Máté; K. Nyúl; Sz. Simon; R. Varga, F. Zsemle, B. Czaunerformer students of ELTE, kindly contributed results from their graduate theses.
  • The researchwassupportedbytheHungarian OTKA grant No. T 047159 to J. Szőnyi-Mádl, and theCanadianNaturalSciencesandEngineering Research Council’s „Discoverygrant” No. A-8504 to J. Tóth.


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