IL Slavery to the Civil War
Illinois History Slavery and Black Codes in Illinois through Illinois in the Civil War
The First Slaves • The 1st slaves in IL were brought in by the French. • Most were brought in to work in the lead mines in the northwest part of the state.
Two Types of Slaves • Those who had no say in their bondage. • Those who signed up for the work. • Indentured servants • Usually a 7 year contract
The Ordinance of 1787 • States from the Northwest Territory will be free states. • But many of the people moving into IL. were from Kentucky and brought their slaves with them. • Many wanted IL to be developed as a slave state.
Slaves and Salt • The Govt. salt mines were mainly manned by slaves & the fear was that their removal would hurt the state’s economy. • As many as 2,000 slaves worked in the salt mines.
Compromise • To prevent the closing of the salt mines a deal was struck. • No new slaves allowed • Existing slaves were not freed • Indentured servants would finish out their contracts • Their children are freed at age 21
1819 Black Codes • Freed men had to carry papers proving their freedom. • Register at the county seat • Southern slave agents would frequently come to IL and kidnap blacks & sell them in the South.
Codes • Illegal for Whites to hire Blacks that did not have a certificate. • $1.50 fine a day • Illegal to bring slaves to IL in order to free them. • $200.00 fine per slave
Governor Coles • Former slave owner from Virginia • Abolitionist • Won the governorship by 50 votes • His Lt. Gov. and both houses of the Gen. Assembly were controlled by pro-slavery people. • Both houses passed a resolution for the people to vote on a Const. Convention
Vote on Convention • The hope was a Const. Convention would open the door for IL to become a slave state. • Coles financed the campaign to educate Illinoisans about the immorality and cruelty of slavery. • The proposal was defeated 6,640 to 4,972. NO SLAVERY IN IL.
The First Martyr • The slave issue died down until Elijah P. Lovejoy moved to Alton and began printing anti-slavery articles. • On the night of Nov. 7, 1837, Lovejoy was killed. • This brought the slave issue back to the attention of everyone.
1853 Black Codes • A new set of Black Codes were enacted • The harshest in any of the free states • Slave owners could not move to IL if they were planning on freeing their slaves. • Blacks could not come to IL to live. • Punishment for Blacks fine or servitude • Punishment for Whites fines & imprisonment
The Underground Railroad • Network of people working together to help runaway slaves reach the North • Final destination was Canada • Used many rail road terms to describe parts & positions-
Harriet Tubman • Black Moses • Like Moses she led her people to freedom • $40,000 reward for her capture • Ruthless / No turning back • 1896, she founded the National Association of Colored Women-
John Jones • Freed man living in Chicago trying to end the Black Codes in IL. • 1871 he became the first Black to be elected as Cook Co. Commissioner.
The Major Issue • In the mid 1800s, slavery was the hot issue • Illinois was divided into 2 camps • North opposed slavery • South or Egypt was in line with the Southern states and in favor of slavery.
Debates • Abraham Lincoln a Whig turned Republican was challenging Stephen Douglas a Democrat for the IL Senate position. • They traveled around IL giving speeches and debating each other
Stephen A. Douglas • Little Giant • 5’4” • Trying to straddle the fence on the issue of slavery. • Appease the Democrats in the North & South • Introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. • Ended the Missouri Comp. of 1820. • Let the states decide on the issue of slavery.
Abraham Lincoln • Rail Splitter • 6’4” • Opposed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act • A way to expand slavery • The Whigs failed to be a strong voice of opposition to the K-N Act. This led to Lincoln becoming a Republican. • Republicans formed as a group opposed to slavery.
Debates • The debates between Douglas & Lincoln were in Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, Quincy, & Alton. • Lincoln consistently stuck to his view that slavery was wrong. • Douglas straddled the fence trying to appease both southern & northern Democrats by saying the people should decide.
Lincoln-Douglas • June 16, 1858, during the IL. Senatorial debates Lincoln shocked the state & country by stating, “I believe this government cannot endure, permanently half slave and half free.” • The bar is being raised
The Election in 1858 • Lincoln won the popular vote but the General Assembly chose Douglas to continue on as the state’s Senator. • Even though Douglas won, many Democrats were not happy with the views of Douglas. • 2 years later Lincoln & Douglas vie for the Presidency.
Bleeding Kansas • The idea that the people would decide on the issue of slavery caused considerable conflicts within Kansas Btw. Pro & Anti slave groups. • John Brown was a leading abolitionist in Kansas
John Brown • John Brown retaliated against pro-slavery people, killing five • As a result, raids were made against abolitionists • Bleeding Kansas described the debate over the slavery issue
The Presidential Election of 1860 • The election became a 4 way race with the Democrats divide by region.
The Election of 1860 • Republican Nominee was Abraham Lincoln
The Election of 1860 • Constitutional Union Nominee was John Bell
The Election of 1860 • Democrats were divided Northern Dem. Nominee was Stephen Douglas Southern Dem. Nominee was John Breckinridge
Northern voters split their votes between Douglas and Lincoln Southern voters split their votes between Breckinridge and Bell The Election of 1860 • Lincoln wins with 180 Electoral Votes. • 40% of the Northern votes • Only 5,000 votes in S. IL. • Almost no support from Southern voters
Moving Toward WAR! • Southerners were angry at the idea of a Republican President • Southerners felt they had no control over the Federal Government • Planters that backed slavery threatened to leave the Union • Secessionists said each state entered the Union voluntarily, and they could leave it also
SECESSION • South Carolina secedes in December 1860 • States of the Lower South secede also • Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia • February 1861 southern delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama • Formed the Confederate States of America
The Civil War • As the Southern states left the Union, many in southern IL. looked at separating & creating a new state (Egypt).
Lincoln’s Inauguration • Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861
The Attack on Fort Sumter • April 12, 1861 Confederates fire on Fort Sumter • Commanded by Robert Anderson • 24 hours later the fort is surrendered • Lincoln calls for volunteers to help put down the rebellion
Results of the Call to stop the Rebellion • The upper South responds to Lincoln’s call for volunteers by seceding also • The Upper South included: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas Fort Sumter
Manassas / The First Bull Run • July of 1861 • First major battle of the civil war • Union army tried to march to Richmond, Virginia • Many civilians followed the Union troops as they marched south
Results of the First Bull Run • The Union forces were beaten by the fresh Confederate troops • The Union retreated (ran for their lives) right through the picnicking civilians • 5,000 soldiers were killed in the battle
Trouble In The North • The Democrats in the North that supported the South were known as Copperheads. • Many times they would try to sabotage Union efforts. • The Copperheads were continuously calling for an end to the war. • Tried to undermine Lincoln’s efforts for victory.
Illinois • Industry increased to meet the demands of the Union Army. • Farmers met the needs of both the Union Army & Europeans
John A. Logan • Logan was one of the IL. Congressmen who had followed the Union troops to watch the battle. • Private retreating • Logan was given a commission as a Colonel in the Union Army. • Sent to Marion to recruit volunteers to fight.
Logan • Logan went on to fight in the Western campaigns. • Belmont • Fort Donelson • Wounded & thought to be dead in the battle for Fort Donelson. • Given the rank of Brigadier General
Logan Cont’d. • Later Logan was promoted to Major General (2 stars) • He was a powerful figure on the battlefield while sitting on his horse Slasher. • At the end of the war he was offered a brigadier general position with the Army. • Campaigned for Lincoln’s re-election in 1864.
Ulysses S. Grant • Born in Point Pleasant, Ohio. • Entered West Point at age 17. • Name was changed in W.P. • Settled in IL after the end of the Mexican War. • He rejoined the Army after Lincoln called for volunteers
Grant • Given the position of the assistant quartermaster of the IL regiments. • Later promoted to brigadier general • In charge of the troops in Cairo • Grant led the Union forces in the Western Campaign • Later placed in charge of trying to take Richmond.
The Emancipation Proclamation • Passed in September 1862 • Took effect January 1, 1863 • Freed slaves in areas of open rebellion
Problems With the Emancipation Proclamation • It affected the slaves that were in states of open rebellion • These states did not recognize the laws of the United States anymore • The slaves could flee to areas held by Union troops to be considered Contraband