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U.S. FOREIGN POLICY. 1945-2000. ASIA. COLD WAR TIMELINE: TRUMAN 1945-1953. 1949 : Communist China. Who led the communist revolution in China in 1949 a nd came to power after a Civil War between communists and nationalists ?. MAO ZEDONG.

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slide5

Who led the communist revolution in China in 1949 and came to power after a Civil War between communists and nationalists ?

MAO ZEDONG

chaing kai shek

Who was the leader of the US backed nationalist China who was forced to flee to the island of Taiwan after the Communists took over mainland China ?

CHAING KAI SHEK

the china problem
The China Problem
  • After WWII , US tried to contain communism from spreading in China
    • continued to support Chiang Kai Shek w/ $ & weapons even when clear his cause lost
      • Jiang lost the support and confidence of the Chinese people
  • Truman not willing to intervene militarily (avoid another World War)
    • Chose Japan as pro-western force in Asia
    • US helped rapid economic growth in Japan
chinese civil war
Chinese Civil War
  • Communist movement developed in China during 1920s
  • Civil war erupted before & after WWII
    • Nationalists led by Chiang Kai Shek = Jiang Jieshi
    • Communists led by Mao Zedong
  • Controversy w/in US re: US role in this Civil War (Am. Spirit readings 415-418)
1949 communist china est
1949 : Communist China est.
  • Mao Zedong leader of the communists came to power in China
    • after a Civil War between communists and nationalists
  • Chiang Kai Shek non-communist leader ousted
    • Nationalist China exiled to Taiwan
why was the soviet union angry over representation of china in the un after 1949

Why was the Soviet Union angry over representation of China in the UN after 1949 ?

COMMUNIST CHINA WAS NOT RECOGNIZED.

NATIONALIST CHINA (EXILED ON THE ISLAND OF TAIWAN) WAS GIVEN RECOGNITION.

what was the document called that
What was the document called that …
  • called for a massive increase in military spending
  • reflected the American belief in our limitless capabilities
  • represented a strengthening of America’s containment policy

?????????????????

national security council report nsc 68 am spirit 418 425
National Security Council Report (NSC-68) (Am. Spirit 418-425)
  • Resulted from
    • the fleeing of Chiang Kai-shek and his followers to Taiwan (Formosa)
    • the victory of Mao Zedong and his communist forces in China
    • the detonation of an atomic bomb by the Soviet Union
  • Document that
    • called for a massive increase in military spending
    • reflected the American belief in our limitless capabilities
    • represented a strengthening of America’s containment policy
post wwii occupation of korea
POST WWII OCCUPATION OF KOREA
  • BEFORE WWII : Japan conquered Korea
  • AFTER WWII: Korea occupied by US & USSR
    • Divided along 38th parallel
    • N.Korea becomes communist (Soviet backed leader = Kim Il Sung)
    • S.Korea becomes capitalist (US backed leader = Syngman Rhee)
what event caused the korean war

What event caused the Korean War ?

NORTH KOREA

INVADED

SOUTH KOREA

1950 1953 korean war
1950-1953: Korean War
  • CAUSE OF KOREAN WAR
    • 1950 : Communist N. Korean army invades S. Korea to unify the nation by force
  • The UN sends troops (mostly US troops) to defend South Korea from a Soviet-backed invasion by North Korea
  • Illustrated Truman’s commitment to containment
  • 3 year police action (undeclared war)
    • US/UN/S.Korean forces vs. Soviet equipped N.Korean forces and Communist Chinese forces
combat in korea see saw war
COMBAT IN KOREA : See-saw War
  • June 1950- N. Korean forces push DOWN to southern corner of S. Korea (Pusan)
  • Sept 1950 – MacArthur counterattacks at Inchon
    • US/UN forces push N.Korean forces UP into N. Korea & approach the Chinese border (Yalu River)
  • Fall 1950 –thousands of Chinese troops cross the border & push US/UN forces back DOWN to 38th parallel & recapture Seoul
  • April 1951 – US/UN forces retake Seoul and push back UP to the 38th ; stalemate occurs at 38th parallel
limited war
LIMITED WAR
  • PRESIDENT Truman wanted to avoid direct conflict with Communist China (thought it would lead to World War III)
  • GENERAL MacArthur
    • wanted an invasion of China
    • privately and publicly criticized Truman
    • Suggested use of nuclear weapons against China
1951 general mac arthur relieved of command fired
1951:General Mac Arthur Relieved of Command = Fired
  • Fired for speaking out against Truman’s policy of a limited war in Korea
    • Mac Arthur began to publicly indicate his dissatisfaction with Truman’s policy on Korea
  • Unpopular decision by Truman
  • Involved a challenge to the President’s constitutional right to control the military and direct foreign policy
the korean war ends
The Korean War ends
  • stalemate leads to ceasefire agreement
  • 1953 – armistice signed
    • Divided Korea along the 38th parallel : the same place it had been divided before the war
    • A demilitarized zone (DMZ) was established between North Korea and South Korea that exists to this day; demilitarized zone still exists
  • Forgotten War
    • 54,000 Americans died
results
RESULTS:
  • a boost to American economic growth at a point when many believed it was about to decline
  • the creation of the office of Defense Mobilization to fight inflation , hold down prices, and discourage union wage demands
cold war timeline

COLD WAR TIMELINE :

EISENHOWER 1953-1961

slide25
What are secret activities by the CIA designed to undermine governments considered unfriendly to the American interests called ?

COVERT OPERATIONS

slide26
CIA
  • Central Intelligence Agency
    • Est. by National Security Act of 1947
    • Collects info
    • Conducts secret operations
    • Protect U.S. national security
  • During Cold War
    • Espionage & covert operations
      • To weaken & overthrow unfriendly govt’s
covert operations
Covert Operations
  • Examples during the Cold War :
    • Iran MIDDLE EAST (1953)
    • Guatemala LATIN AMERICAN (1954)
    • Vietnam ASIA (1954)
    • Congo AFRICA (1960)
  • During the 1950s, the Central Intelligence Agency engineered pro-American political coups in both Iran and Guatemala
who was the republican party candidate who ran against lbj in the 1964 presidential election
Who was the republican party candidate who ran against LBJ in the 1964 presidential election ?

Barry Goldwater

slide30

What suggestions did Barry Goldwater make during the 1964 presidential election that frightened many Americans?

Suggestions of using nuclear weapons on Cuba and North Vietnam.

how did johnson s campaign capitalize on these fears
How did Johnson’s campaign capitalize on these fears?

Produced a chilling television commercial in which a picture of a little girl counting the petals on a daisy dissolved into mushroom cloud created by an atomic bomb.

slide32
1964
  • China detonates its first atomic bomb
china
CHINA
  • Nixon’s efforts to establish a new relationship with China were a result of his belief that Communist China must be strengthened in order to counteract the power of the Soviet Union
  • During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Nixon administration took all of the following actions toward the Communist government of China
    • sending a secret mission to Beijing to carry on discussions
    • having the president personally visit China
    • establishing formal diplomatic relations with China
who was nixon s advisor for national security affairs and later his secretary of state

Who was Nixon’s advisor for national security affairs and later his secretary of state?

Henry Kissinger

realpolitick

What was the name of the foreign policy philosophy that believed that foreign policy should be based solely on consideration of power, not ideals or moral principles?

Realpolitick

how was this political philosophy less confrontational than the former policy of containment

How was this political philosophy less confrontational than the former policy of containment?

Containment refused to recognize the major Communist countries. Confrontation largely meant negotiation with the major Communist countries.

slide38

What was the other name of this foreign policy adopted by President Nixon – a policy aimed at easing Cold War tensions?

détente

what was one of the most startling applications of this new foreign policy by nixon in 1972

What was one of the most startling applications of this new foreign policy by Nixon in 1972 ?

when Nixon who had risen in politics as a strong anti communist visited Communist China

how did nixon s trip to communist china change the us relationship with china

How did Nixon’s trip to Communist China change the US relationship with China?

opened friendly diplomatic and economic relations with China

how did ford continue the foreign policy of nixon

How did Ford continue the foreign policy of Nixon?

Continued negotiations with China and the Soviet Union

president carter s foreign policy
President Carter’s foreign policy
  • guiding principle = human rights
  • believed fundamental problem of the American economy in the late 1970s was U.S. dependence on foreign oil
  • signed treaties restoring Panamanian sovereignty over the Canal Zone
    • 1978 treaty that would go into effect 1999
  • established formal diplomatic relations with mainland China (1979)
slide45
What foreign policy of the previous Republican presidents did Carter reject and why did he reject it?
  • rejected Realpolitick the policy of negotiating with powerful nations regardless of their behavior
  • because he wanted a foreign policy committed to human rights
  • wanted to use moral principles as a guide for US foreign policy
jimmy carter supported a us foreign policy that would promote what throughout the world

Jimmy Carter supported a US foreign policy that would promote what throughout the world

HUMAN RIGHTS

how did president carter put his foreign policy philosophy into practice
How did President Carter put his foreign policy philosophy into practice ?
  • Cut off military aid to countries that had imprisoned or tortured thousand of their own citizens
  • Also established a Bureau of Human Rights in the State Department
what problems did critics have with carter s foreign policy philosophy
What problems did critics have with Carter’s foreign policy philosophy?
  • It undercut Cold War alliances (like Nicaragua which was a dictatorial but anti-Communist country)
  • Was inconsistent in its treatment of dictators (supported dictators in South Korea and Philippines)
china 1989 tiananmen square
CHINA 1989: Tiananmen Square
  • University students in Communist China led large pro-democracy demonstrations
  • China’s government brutally slaughtered unarmed student protestors
  • The demonstration in Beijing on June 3, 1989, resulted in the democratic movement being crushed and a renewed period of repression
  • In response to China’s crushing of its pro-democracy movement, the United States under George Bush maintained normal relations with China
1989 tiananmen square
1989: Tiananmen Square
  • University students in Communist China led large pro-democracy demonstrations
  • China’s government brutally slaughtered unarmed student protestors