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  1. Manifestation of Novel Social Challenges of the European Unionin the Teaching Material ofMedical Biotechnology Master’s Programmesat the University of Pécs and at the University of Debrecen Identification number: TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0011

  2. Manifestation of Novel Social Challenges of the European Unionin the Teaching Material ofMedical Biotechnology Master’s Programmesat the University of Pécs and at the University of Debrecen Identification number: TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0011 MiklósSzékely and Erika Pétervári Molecular and Clinical Basics of Gerontology – Lecture 1 Basics of gerontology, demographic data

  3. Gerontology and Geriatrics Gerontology • (Géron = „gray“, lógos = „study“) • The study of normal aging Geriatrics • Characteristic diseases in the elderly, or age-related changes in diseases that already began in the young

  4. WHO categories for late adulthood • age 50-59: age of transition • age 60-74: elderly • age 75-89: old • age 90-99: very old • over the age of 100: age of Methuselah

  5. Population-wide aging Dynamic and dramatic increase in the population above the age of 65

  6. The share of people over the age of 60 in Europe in 2005 and in 2050 (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Italy Spain Malta Latvia Poland Greece France Cyprus Ireland Austria Estonia Finland Sweden Belgium Slovakia Portugal Slovenia Hungary Germany Denmark Lithuania Luxemburg Netherland Europe of 15 Europe of 25 Czeh Republic United Kingdom New accession countries 2005 2050

  7. Changes of the population pyramid in Hungary 2004 1890 1941 85 – X Male 80 – 84 75 – 79 Male excess 70 – 74 65 – 69 60 – 64 Female 55 – 59 50 – 54 45 – 49 Female excess 40 – 44 Age group 35 – 39 30 – 34 25 – 29 20 – 24 15 – 19 10 – 14 5 – 9 0 – 4 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 • Number of inhabitantsinthousands

  8. Survival curvesfor different populations United States (1970) 80 60 1,100 BC Percent survival Europe15,000yrs ago 40 Africa 50,000yrs ago 20 20 40 60 80 Age (years)

  9. Mean life expectancyof males and females in Sweden over two centuries

  10. Survival curves for male ratsfedad libitum or restricted to 60% 100 90 80 70 60 Percent Surviving 50 Group 40 Ad libitum 30 Restricted to 60% 20 10 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 Age (months)

  11. Age-specific death rates of Swedish femalesfrom 1751 to 1950 and for 1988 500 Sweden (females) 100 Death/1000/year 10 1751 - 1790 1851 - 1860 1901 - 1910 1920 - 1930 1941 - 1950 1 1988 0.5 0 25 50 75 100 Years

  12. Chronological and biological aging How old wouldyou feel if you did not know how old you were?

  13. Etiology of aging A Genetic mechanisms • Mutations (mutation rate is 107-11) • Chromosome abnormalities • Telomeres • Demethylation • Defects of protein synthesis (Normal mistake rate 5/10,000) • Elongation factor-1 levels are also low, just as levels of some types of mRNA, e.g. mRNA for IL-1. B Acquired mechanisms • Caloric intake – high serum glucose • High metabolic rate • Free radicals • Sedentary lifestyle

  14. Etiology of aging A Genetic mechanisms • 1 Essential lifespan is stable within the same species • 2Hayflick phenomenon 3 X chromosome 4 HLA DR1, DR11 – HLA DRw9 5Progeria syndromes Hutchinson-Gilford, Werner

  15. Etiology of aging A Genetic mechanisms • 6 Experimental models • Drosophila melanogasterTransgenic strains contain extra copies of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase Caenorhabditiselegans(nematode-worm) SOD, catalase increase survival and thermal tolerance YeastLongevity associated Gene (LAG)-1 MouseCertain inbred strains may live up to 8 years!!Tumor suppressor p53 deficiency leads topremature aging and death

  16. Factors influencing aging LifeActivity Material Security Social Resources Aging well Cognitive Efficacy Physical Health and Functional Status

  17. Survival curves for different populations:influence of environmental/economic/social factors 100 Survival at earlier ages has increased with the passage of time and is greater in more developed countries. Note the maximum age achieved has not altered. UK 1975 UK 1901 75 Percent survival 50 British India 1921-1930 25 0 20 40 60 80 100 Age (years)

  18. Expectedlife-spanat birthin different European states IS FI RU NO SE 64 – 67 EE 67 – 70 LV DK LT 70 – 73 LU BY IE 73 – 75 UK PL NL UA 75 – 78 DE BE CZ 78 – 80 SK MD AT HU FR 80 – 82 RO CH SL HR 82 – 84 BA CS BG IT 84 – 86 MK AL PT TK ES 86 – 88 GR

  19. Regional pattern of life expectancy in Germany:East-West difference (2003) Hamburg Hamburg Berlin Berlin males females Köln Köln Frankfurt M. Frankfurt M. München München 100 km 100 km life expectancy at birth (years) life expectancy at birth (years) <81 <74 81-81.5 74-75 81.5-82 75-76 82-82.5 76-77 >82.5 >77

  20. Average life expectancy at birth in different European states (1987)